Category Archives: Coronary Heart Diseases

Coronary artery disease – Wikipedia

Posted: April 24, 2018 at 1:44 am

Coronary artery diseaseSynonymsAtherosclerotic heart disease,[1] atherosclerotic vascular disease,[2] coronary heart disease[3]Illustration depicting atherosclerosis in a coronary artery.SpecialtyCardiology, cardiac surgerySymptomsChest pain, shortness of breath[4]ComplicationsHeart failure, abnormal heart rhythms[5]CausesAtherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart[6]Risk factorsHigh blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol[6][7]Diagnostic methodElectrocardiogram, cardiac stress test, coronary computed tomographic angiography, coronary angiogram[8]PreventionHealthy diet, regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, not smoking[9]TreatmentPercutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG)[10]MedicationAspirin, beta blockers, nitroglycerin, statins[10]Frequency110 million (2015)[11]Deaths8.9 million (2015)[12] Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD),[13] refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.[14] It is within the group of cardiovascular diseases of which it is the most common type.[15] A common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[4] Occasionally it may feel like heartburn. Usually symptoms occur with exercise or emotional stress, last less than a few minutes, and improve with rest.[4] Shortness of breath may also occur and sometimes no symptoms are present.[4] Occasionally, the first sign is a heart attack.[5] Other complications include heart failure or an abnormal heartbeat.[5] Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.[6][7][16] The underlying mechanism involves reduction of blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle due to atherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart.[6] A number of tests may help with diagnoses including: electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, coronary computed tomographic angiography, and coronary angiogram, among others.[8] Ways to reduce CAD risk include eating a healthy diet, regularly exercising, maintaining a healthy weight, and not smoking.[9] Medications for diabetes, high cholesterol, or high blood pressure are sometimes used.[9] There is limited evidence for screening people who are at low risk and do not have symptoms.[17] Treatment involves the same measures as prevention.[10][18] Additional medications such as antiplatelets (including aspirin), beta blockers, or nitroglycerin may be recommended.[10] Procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be used in severe disease.[10][19] In those with stable CAD it is unclear if PCI or CABG in addition to the other treatments improves life expectancy or decreases heart attack risk.[20] In 2015 CAD affected 110 million people and resulted in 8.9 million deaths.[11][12] It makes up 15.9% of all deaths making it the most common cause of death globally.[12] The risk of death from CAD for a given age has decreased between 1980 and 2010, especially in developed countries.[21] The number of cases of CAD for a given age has also decreased between 1990 and 2010.[22] In the United States in 2010 about 20% of those over 65 had CAD, while it was present in 7% of those 45 to 64, and 1.3% of those 18 to 45.[23] Rates are higher among men than women of a given age.[23] Chest pain that occurs regularly with activity, after eating, or at other predictable times is termed stable angina and is associated with narrowings of the arteries of the heart. Angina that changes in intensity, character or frequency is termed unstable Continue reading

Posted in Coronary Heart Diseases | Comments Off on Coronary artery disease – Wikipedia