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Category Archives: MS Treatment

Multiple sclerosis – Wikipedia

Posted: October 17, 2018 at 7:43 am

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.[1] This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental, and sometimes psychiatric problems.[5][8][9] Specific symptoms can include double vision, blindness in one eye, muscle weakness, trouble with sensation, or trouble with coordination.[1] MS takes several forms, with new symptoms either occurring in isolated attacks (relapsing forms) or building up over time (progressive forms).[10] Between attacks, symptoms may disappear completely; however, permanent neurological problems often remain, especially as the disease advances.[10] While the cause is not clear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells.[3] Proposed causes for this include genetics and environmental factors such as being triggered by a viral infection.[8][11] MS is usually diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests.[4] There is no known cure for multiple sclerosis.[1] Treatments attempt to improve function after an attack and prevent new attacks.[8] Medications used to treat MS, while modestly effective, can have side effects and be poorly tolerated.[1] Physical therapy can help with people’s ability to function.[1] Many people pursue alternative treatments, despite a lack of evidence of benefit.[12] The long-term outcome is difficult to predict, with good outcomes more often seen in women, those who develop the disease early in life, those with a relapsing course, and those who initially experienced few attacks.[13] Life expectancy is on average 5 to 10 years lower than that of an unaffected population.[5] Multiple sclerosis is the most common immune-mediated disorder affecting the central nervous system.[14] In 2015, about 2.3 million people were affected globally with rates varying widely in different regions and among different populations.[6][15] That year about 18,900 people died from MS, up from 12,000 in 1990.[7][16] The disease usually begins between the ages of 20 and 50 and is twice as common in women as in men.[2] MS was first described in 1868 by Jean-Martin Charcot.[17] The name multiple sclerosis refers to the numerous scars (scleraebetter known as plaques or lesions) that develop on the white matter of the brain and spinal cord.[17] A number of new treatments and diagnostic methods are under development.[18] A person with MS can have almost any neurological symptom or sign, with autonomic, visual, motor, and sensory problems being the most common.[5] The specific symptoms are determined by the locations of the lesions within the nervous system, and may include loss of sensitivity or changes in sensation such as tingling, pins and needles or numbness, muscle weakness, blurred vision,[19] very pronounced reflexes, muscle spasms, or difficulty in moving; difficulties with coordination and balance (ataxia); problems with speech or swallowing, visual problems (nystagmus, optic neuritis or double vision), feeling tired, acute or chronic pain, and bladder and bowel difficulties, among others.[5] Difficulties thinking and emotional problems such as depression or unstable mood are also common.[5] Uhthoff’s phenomenon, a worsening of symptoms due to exposure to higher than usual temperatures, and Lhermitte’s sign, an electrical sensation that runs down the back when bending the neck, are particularly characteristic of MS.[5] The main measure of disability and severity is the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), with other measures such as the multiple sclerosis functional composite being increasingly used in research.[20][21][22] The condition begins in 85% of cases as a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) over a number of days with 45% having motor or sensory problems, 20% having optic neuritis, and 10% having symptoms related to brainstem dysfunction, while the remaining 25% have more than one of the previous difficulties.[4] The course of symptoms occurs in two main patterns initially: either as episodes of sudden worsening that last a few days to months (called relapses, exacerbations, bouts, attacks, or flare-ups) followed by improvement (85% of cases) or as a gradual worsening over time without periods of recovery (1015% of cases).[2] A combination of these two patterns may also occur[10] or people may start in a relapsing and remitting course that then becomes progressive later on.[2] Relapses are usually not predictable, occurring without warning.[5] Exacerbations rarely occur more frequently than twice per year.[5] Some relapses, however, are preceded by common triggers and they occur more frequently during spring and summer.[23] Similarly, viral infections such as the common cold, influenza, or gastroenteritis increase their risk.[5] Stress may also trigger an attack.[24] Women with MS who become pregnant experience fewer relapses; however, during the first months after delivery the risk increases.[5] Overall, pregnancy does not seem to influence long-term disability.[5] Many events have been found not to affect relapse rates including vaccination, breast feeding,[5] physical trauma,[25] and Uhthoff’s phenomenon.[23] The cause of MS is unknown; however, it is believed to occur as a result of some combination of genetic and environmental factors such as infectious agents.[5] Theories try to combine the data into likely explanations, but none has proved definitive. While there are a number of environmental risk factors and although some are partly modifiable, further research is needed to determine whether their elimination can prevent MS.[26] MS is more common in people who live farther from the equator, although exceptions exist.[5][27] These exceptions include ethnic groups that are at low risk far from the equator such as the Samis, Amerindians, Canadian Hutterites, New Zealand Mori,[28] and Canada’s Inuit,[2] as well as groups that have a relatively high risk close to the equator such as Sardinians,[2] inland Sicilians,[29] Palestinians and Parsi.[28] The cause of this geographical pattern is not clear.[2] While the north-south gradient of incidence is decreasing,[27] as of 2010 it is still present.[2] MS is more common in regions with northern European populations[5] and the geographic variation may simply reflect the global distribution of these high-risk populations.[2] Decreased sunlight exposure resulting in decreased vitamin D production has also been put forward as an explanation.[30][31][32] A relationship between season of birth and MS lends support to this idea, with fewer people born in the northern hemisphere in November as compared to May being affected later in life.[33] Environmental factors may play a role during childhood, with several studies finding that people who move to a different region of the world before the age of 15 acquire the new region’s risk to MS. 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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Symptoms and Treatment

Posted: at 7:43 am

What Is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which the body’s immune system attacks its own central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Continue reading

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Multiple Sclerosis: What’s New in MS Treatment Options?

Posted: October 12, 2018 at 1:41 am

Medically reviewed on Apr 27, 2018 by L. Continue reading

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Pill for Relapsing MS | RRMS Treatment | GILENYA (fingolimod)

Posted: October 9, 2018 at 11:40 am

GILENYA has a pregnancy registryclick here to learn more. *GILENYA can result in a slow heart rate when first taken Continue reading

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Multiple Sclerosis Treatment & Management: Approach …

Posted: October 2, 2018 at 8:41 am

Disease-modifying therapies have shown beneficial effects in patients with relapsing MS, including reduced frequency and severity of clinical attacks. These agents appear to slow the progression of disability and the reduce accumulation of lesions within the brain and spinal cord. Continue reading

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Community Mental Health Centers – MS Department of Mental …

Posted: September 22, 2018 at 6:46 pm

Regional community mental health centers (CMHCs) operate under the supervision of regional commissions appointed by county boards of supervisors comprising their respective service areas. The 14 CMHCs make available a range of community-based mental health, substance use, and in some regions, intellectual/developmental disabilities services. Continue reading

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MS Relapse Rates: Measuring MS Treatment Efficacy in …

Posted: August 25, 2018 at 3:45 am

Measuring the effectiveness of treatments for multiple sclerosis (MS) is complicated; the disease biology is not entirely understood, and symptoms vary from person to person. While doctors and researchers continue to explore new endpoints for clinical trials that evaluate MS therapies, measuring relapse rates remains one of the most common Continue reading

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Vitamin D links to MS supported by study

Posted: July 26, 2018 at 10:11 am

SCIENTISTS have moved a step closer to understanding how to better treat multiple sclerosis (MS) after more evidence emerged of a crucial link to vitamin D. In the latest study, University of Tasmania researchers discovered that MS sufferers treated with interferon-beta, a common MS drug, had higher vitamin D levels than those not on the treatment. Continue reading

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Multiple sclerosis – Diagnosis and treatment – Mayo Clinic

Posted: June 2, 2018 at 9:42 pm

Diagnosis A complete neurological exam and medical history are needed to diagnose MS. There are no specific tests for MS. Instead, a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis often relies on ruling out other conditions that might produce similar signs and symptoms, known as a differential diagnosis. Continue reading

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MS Treatment Options & Strategies –

Posted: at 9:42 pm

Strategies for treating MS When faced with an illness or injury, such as an infection or a broken bone, we usually think of going to a doctor and getting medicine or undergoing a procedure that will help us get back to normal again. However, when it comes to a disease like MS, we need to think a little differently when we talk about treatment. Currently there is no cure or easy fix for MS, so the goal of treatment is to manage the disease and learn to live as fully and as normally as possible Continue reading

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