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Category Archives: Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone Replacement Therapy | HRT | Menopause | MedlinePlus

Posted: December 7, 2018 at 7:44 pm

Menopause is the time in a woman's life when her period stops. It is a normal part of aging Continue reading

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Hormone Therapy for Women: Side Effects, Cancer Risks

Posted: at 7:44 pm

How is hormone therapy (HT) prescribed? Doctors usually prescribe hormone therapy (HT) as a combination of estrogen and another female hormone, progesterone. Synthetic progesterone compounds are referred to as progestins Continue reading

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Heart arrhythmia – Wikipedia

Posted: December 6, 2018 at 8:42 pm

Heart arrhythmiaSynonymsCardiac arrhythmia, cardiac dysrhythmia, irregular heartbeatVentricular fibrillation (VF) showing disorganized electrical activity producing a spiked tracing on an electrocardiogram (ECG).SpecialtyCardiologySymptomsPalpitations, lightheadedness, passing out, shortness of breath, chest pain[1]ComplicationsStroke, heart failure[2][3]Usual onsetOlder age[4]TypesExtra beats, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular arrhythmias, bradyarrhythmias[3]CausesProblems with the electrical conduction system of the heart[2]Diagnostic methodElectrocardiogram, Holter monitor[5]TreatmentMedications, medical procedures (pacemaker), surgery[6]FrequencyMillions[4] Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.[2] A heart rate that is too fast above 100 beats per minute in adults is called tachycardia and a heart rate that is too slow below 60 beats per minute is called bradycardia.[2] Many types of arrhythmia have no symptoms.[1] When symptoms are present these may include palpitations or feeling a pause between heartbeats.[1] In more serious cases there may be lightheadedness, passing out, shortness of breath, or chest pain.[1] While most types of arrhythmia are not serious, some predispose a person to complications such as stroke or heart failure.[2][3] Others may result in cardiac arrest.[3] There are four main types of arrhythmia: extra beats, supraventricular tachycardias, ventricular arrhythmias, and bradyarrhythmias.[3] Extra beats include premature atrial contractions, premature ventricular contractions, and premature junctional contractions.[3] Supraventricular tachycardias include atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.[3] Ventricular arrhythmias include ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.[3][7] Arrhythmias are due to problems with the electrical conduction system of the heart.[2] Arrhythmias may occur in children; however, the normal range for the heart rate is different and depends on age.[3] A number of tests can help with diagnosis including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and Holter monitor.[5] Most arrhythmias can be effectively treated.[2] Treatments may include medications, medical procedures such as inserting a pacemaker, and surgery.[6] Medications for a fast heart rate may include beta blockers or agents that attempt to restore a normal heart rhythm such as procainamide.[6] This latter group may have more significant side effects especially if taken for a long period of time.[6] Pacemakers are often used for slow heart rates.[6] Those with an irregular heartbeat are often treated with blood thinners to reduce the risk of complications.[6] Those who have severe symptoms from an arrhythmia may receive urgent treatment with a controlled electric shock in the form of cardioversion or defibrillation.[6] Arrhythmia affects millions of people.[4] In Europe and North America, as of 2014, atrial fibrillation affects about 2% to 3% of the population.[8] Atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter resulted in 112,000 deaths in 2013, up from 29,000 in 1990.[9] Sudden cardiac death is the cause of about half of deaths due to cardiovascular disease or about 15% of all deaths globally.[10] About 80% of sudden cardiac death is the result of ventricular arrhythmias.[10] Arrhythmias may occur at any age but are more common among older people.[4] Arrhythmia may be classified by rate (tachycardia, bradycardia), mechanism (automaticity, re-entry, triggered) or duration (isolated premature beats; couplets; runs, that is 3 or more beats; non-sustained= less than 30 seconds or sustained= over 30 seconds). It is also appropriate to classify by site of origin: These are also known as AV blocks, because the vast majority of them arise from pathology at the atrioventricular node. They are the most common causes of bradycardia: First, second and third degree block also can occur at the level of the sinoatrial junction Continue reading

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What Is Arrhythmia? Symptoms, Treatment, Causes & Types

Posted: at 8:42 pm

Introduction to Arrhythmia An irregular heartbeat is an arrhythmia (also called dysrhythmia). Heart rates can also be irregular Continue reading

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Menopause – Wikipedia

Posted: December 4, 2018 at 5:48 am

Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.[2][8] Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age.[3] Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year.[4] It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries.[9] In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell.[9] Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age.[10] In the years before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular,[11][12] which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow.[11] During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin.[11] Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two.[8] Other symptoms may include vaginal dryness, trouble sleeping, and mood changes.[11] The severity of symptoms varies between women.[8] While menopause is often thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this primarily occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause.[8] In some women, problems that were present like endometriosis or painful periods will improve after menopause.[8] Menopause is usually a natural change.[5] It can occur earlier in those who smoke tobacco.[4][13] Other causes include surgery that removes both ovaries or some types of chemotherapy.[4] At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries' production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.[2] While typically not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine.[14] Menopause is the opposite of menarche, the time when a girl's periods start.[15] Specific treatment is not usually needed.[6] Some symptoms, however, may be improved with treatment.[6] With respect to hot flashes, avoiding smoking, caffeine, and alcohol is often recommended.[6] Sleeping in a cool room and using a fan may help.[6] The following medications may help: menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), clonidine, gabapentin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.[6][7] Exercise may help with sleeping problems.[6] While MHT was once routinely prescribed, it is now only recommended in those with significant symptoms, as there are concerns about side effects.[6] High-quality evidence for the effectiveness of alternative medicine has not been found.[8] There is tentative evidence for phytoestrogens.[16] During early menopause transition, the menstrual cycles remain regular but the interval between cycles begins to lengthen. Hormone levels begin to fluctuate. Ovulation may not occur with each cycle.[17] The date of the final menstrual period is usually taken as the point when menopause has occurred.[17] During the menopausal transition and after menopause, women can experience a wide range of symptoms Continue reading

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Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Cancer Risk

Posted: at 5:48 am

For decades, women have used hormone therapy to ease symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and sweating. This is called menopausal hormone therapy, and you may see it abbreviated as HT or MHT Continue reading

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Menopause Hormone Therapy (HT) Benefits & Risks, Menopause …

Posted: at 5:48 am

Hormone therapy (HT) is one of the government-approved treatments for relief of menopausal symptoms. These symptoms, caused by lower levels of estrogen at menopause, include hot flashes, sleep disturbances, and vaginal dryness Continue reading

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Hormone Replacement Therapy and Natural Alternatives Dr …

Posted: at 5:48 am

Introduction Sexual hormones have a pervasive effect on our mental, emotional and physical function. They regulate sexual maturity and function as well as physical development, and they also act as neurotransmitters and can affect mood, mental and emotional processes Continue reading

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What are bioidentical hormones? – Harvard Health

Posted: at 5:48 am

Published: August, 2006 Many women and health experts continue to struggle with the turnaround in attitude toward hormone therapy in the wake of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial of combined estrogen and progestin (as Prempro) for preventing later-life ills. The trial was stopped early, in 2002, because hormone users had a higher risk of breast cancer, heart disease, stroke, and blood clots. Though the added risks were small, many women and their clinicians concluded they must discontinue hormone therapy. Continue reading

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Transgender hormone therapy – Wikipedia

Posted: at 5:48 am

Parts of this article (those related to the Standards of Care) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (February 2017) Transgender hormone therapy, also sometimes called cross-sex hormone therapy, is a form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in which sex hormones and other hormonal medications are administered to transgender or gender nonconforming individuals for the purpose of more closely aligning their secondary sexual characteristics with their gender identity. Continue reading

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