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Category Archives: Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction – Wikipedia

Posted: November 19, 2018 at 8:40 am

Myocardial infarctionSynonymsAcute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart attackDiagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).SpecialtyCardiologySymptomsChest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, cold sweat, feeling tired[1]ComplicationsHeart failure, irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest[2][3]CausesUsually coronary artery disease[2]Risk factorsHigh blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol[4][5]Diagnostic methodElectrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, coronary angiography[6]TreatmentPercutaneous coronary intervention, thrombolysis[7]MedicationAspirin, nitroglycerin, heparin[7][8]PrognosisSTEMI 10% risk of death (developed world)[7]Frequency15.9 million (2015)[9] Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more often present without chest pain and instead have neck pain, arm pain, or feel tired.[10] Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.[11] An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.[2][3] Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease.[2] Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol intake, among others.[4][5] The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI.[2] MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.[12][13] A number of tests are useful to help with diagnosis, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, and coronary angiography.[6] An ECG, which is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity, may confirm an ST elevation MI (STEMI) if ST elevation is present.[7][14] Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB.[6] Treatment of an MI is time-critical.[15] Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected MI.[8] Nitroglycerin or opioids may be used to help with chest pain; however, they do not improve overall outcomes.[7][8] Supplemental oxygen is recommended in those with low oxygen levels or shortness of breath.[8] In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart, and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where the arteries are pushed open and may be stented, or thrombolysis, where the blockage is removed using medications.[7] People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk.[8] In people with blockages of multiple coronary arteries and diabetes, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be recommended rather than angioplasty.[16] After an MI, lifestyle modifications, along with long term treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, and statins, are typically recommended.[7] Worldwide, about 15.9 million myocardial infarctions occurred in 2015.[9] More than 3 million people had an ST elevation MI and more than 4 million had an NSTEMI.[17] STEMIs occur about twice as often in men as women.[18] About one million people have an MI each year in the United States.[2] In the developed world the risk of death in those who have had an STEMI is about 10%.[7] Rates of MI for a given age have decreased globally between 1990 and 2010.[19] In 2011, AMI was one of the top five most expensive conditions during inpatient hospitalizations in the US, with a cost of about $11.5 billion for 612,000 hospital stays.[20] Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium) Continue reading

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Conditions We Treat: Myocardial Infarction | Johns Hopkins …

Posted: at 8:40 am

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when a portion of the heart is deprived of oxygen due to blockage of a coronary artery. Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle (myocardium) with oxygenated blood. Without oxygen, muscle cells served by the blocked artery begin to die (infarct) Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction: Practice Essentials, Background …

Posted: at 8:40 am

[Guideline] Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, Casey DE Jr, Ganiats TG, Holmes DR Jr, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. Continue reading

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Myocardial infarction – Wikipedia

Posted: November 18, 2018 at 1:47 am

Myocardial infarctionSynonymsAcute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart attackDiagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction: Practice Essentials, Background …

Posted: at 1:47 am

[Guideline] Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, Casey DE Jr, Ganiats TG, Holmes DR Jr, et al. 2014 AHA/ACC guideline for the management of patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction NCLEX Review (Part 1)

Posted: at 1:47 am

This is an NCLEX review for myocardial infarction (heart attack or MI) part 1.Patients who have experienced a myocardial infarction are at risk for many complications. An MI is when there has been compromised blood flow to the myocardial tissue that leads to cell death. In the next review, part 2, I will cover the nursing interventions and medications used to treat MI. Continue reading

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Myocardial infarction (acute): Early rule out using high …

Posted: November 15, 2018 at 8:42 pm

NICE has assessed 3 assays which measure cardiac troponin levels in the blood, to help the NHS decide whether to use these products. The assays are called Elecsys Troponin T high sensitive, ARCHITECT STAT High Sensitive Troponin-I and AccuTnI+3 Continue reading

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Conditions We Treat: Myocardial Infarction | Johns Hopkins …

Posted: at 6:41 am

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when a portion of the heart is deprived of oxygen due to blockage of a coronary artery. Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle (myocardium) with oxygenated blood Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction (Heart Attack) Ischemia Pathophysiology, ECG, Nursing, Signs, Symptoms Part 1

Posted: at 6:41 am

Myocardial infarction (heart attack or MI) ischemia lecture on the pathophysiology, ECG, nursing role, complications, signs and symptoms. This video on myocardial infarction will help students prepare for the NCLEX exam. Myocardial infarction is when blood supplied to the heart muscle is limited which causes injury to the heart tissue. Continue reading

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Heart Attack (Myocardial Infarction) Symptoms | Cleveland Clinic

Posted: at 6:41 am

What are the symptoms of a heart attack? Continue reading

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