Category Archives: Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction – Wikipedia

Posted: April 24, 2018 at 1:44 am

{{| name = Myocardial infarction| synonyms = Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart attack| image = AMI scheme.png| caption = Diagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).| field = Cardiology| symptoms = Chest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, cold sweat, feeling tired[1]| complications = Heart failure, irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest[2][3]| onset = | duration = | causes = Usually coronary artery disease[2]| risks = High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol[4][5]| diagnosis = Electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, coronary angiography[6]| differential = | prevention = | treatment = Percutaneous coronary intervention, thrombolysis[7]| medication = Aspirin, nitroglycerin, heparin[7][8]| prognosis = STEMI 10% risk of death (developed world)[7]| frequency = 15.9 million (2015)[9]| deaths = }}Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more often have atypical symptoms than men.[10] Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.[11] An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.[2][3] Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease.[2] Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol intake, among others.[4][5] The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI.[2] MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.[12][13] A number of tests are useful to help with diagnosis, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, and coronary angiography.[6] An ECG, which is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity, may confirm an ST elevation MI (STEMI) if ST elevation is present.[7][14] Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB.[6] Treatment of an MI is time-critical.[15] Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected MI.[8] Nitroglycerin or opioids may be used to help with chest pain; however, they do not improve overall outcomes.[7][8] Supplemental oxygen should be used in those with low oxygen levels or shortness of breath.[8] In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart, and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where the arteries are pushed open and may be stented, or thrombolysis, where the blockage is removed using medications.[7] People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk.[8] In people with blockages of multiple coronary arteries and diabetes, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be recommended rather than angioplasty.[16] After an MI, lifestyle modifications, along with long term treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, and statins, are typically recommended.[7] Worldwide, about 15.9 million myocardial infarctions occurred in 2015.[9] More than 3 million people had an ST elevation MI and more than 4 million had an NSTEMI.[17] STEMIs occur about twice as often in men as women.[18] About one million people have an MI each year in the United States.[2] In the developed world the risk of death in those who have had an STEMI is about 10%.[7] Rates of MI for a given age have decreased globally between 1990 and 2010.[19] In 2011, AMI was one of the top five most expensive conditions during inpatient hospitalizations in the US, with a cost of about $11.5 billion for 612,000 hospital stays.[20] Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium) Continue reading

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ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction – verywell.com

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ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the term cardiologists use to describe a classic heart attack. It is one type of myocardial infarction in which a part of the heart muscle (myocardium) has died due to the obstruction of blood supply to the area. The ST segment refers to the flat section of an electrocardiogram (ECG) reading and represents the interval between jagged heartbeats. Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction: Practice Essentials, Background …

Posted: at 1:44 am

[Guideline] Amsterdam EA, Wenger NK, Brindis RG, Casey DE Jr, Ganiats TG, Holmes DR Jr, et al. Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction – ECGpedia

Posted: April 21, 2018 at 1:40 am

Ischemia occurs when part of the heart muscle, the myocardium, is deprived of oxygen and nutrients.Common causes of ischemia are: A short period of ischemia causes reversible effects: The heart cells will be able to recover. When the episode of ischemia lasts for a longer period of time, heart muscle cells die. Continue reading

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Myocardial infarction (acute): Early rule out using high …

Posted: April 19, 2018 at 1:42 pm

NICE has assessed 3 assays which measure cardiac troponin levels in the blood, to help the NHS decide whether to use these products. Continue reading

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Conditions We Treat: Myocardial Infarction | Johns Hopkins …

Posted: April 18, 2018 at 2:41 pm

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when a portion of the heart is deprived of oxygen due to blockage of a coronary artery. Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle (myocardium) with oxygenated blood. Continue reading

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Myocardial infarction – Simple English Wikipedia, the free …

Posted: April 12, 2018 at 10:42 am

An acute myocardial infarction, also called a heart attack, happens when a blood vessel in the heart suddenly becomes blocked. Continue reading

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