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Category Archives: Hypothalamus

Paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: August 6, 2018 at 10:44 pm

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN, PVA, or PVH) is a nucleus in the hypothalamus.[1] It is a group of neurons that can be activated by physiological changes including stress. Many PVN neurons project directly to the posterior pituitary where they release oxytocin into the general circulation Continue reading

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Hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: at 12:44 am

The hypothalamus(from Greek , “under” and , thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis).The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system.[1] In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus Continue reading

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Hypothalamus – New World Encyclopedia

Posted: at 12:44 am

The hypothalamus, also known as the “master gland,” is a supervising center in the brain that links the body’s two control systems, the nervous system and the endocrine system, via interaction with the pituitary gland (hypophysis). The hypothalamus (from Greek , “under the thalamus”) is located below the thalamus, just above the brain stem, and occupies the major portion of the ventral region of the brain known as the diencephalon. Continue reading

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Hypothalamus | You and Your Hormones from the Society for …

Posted: at 12:44 am

Where is my hypothalamus? Computer artwork of a person’s head showing the left side of the brain with the hypothalamus highlighted Continue reading

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Hypothalamus: The Body’s Thermostat | Ask A Biologist

Posted: at 12:44 am

All humans and many animals have a hypothalamus, found in the middle of the brain. Continue reading

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hypothalamus | Definition, Anatomy, & Function …

Posted: July 31, 2018 at 7:49 pm

Hypothalamus, region of the brain lying below the thalamus and making up the floor of the third cerebral ventricle. The hypothalamus is an integral part of the brain. It is a small cone-shaped structure that projects downward from the brain, ending in the pituitary (infundibular) stalk, a tubular connection to the pituitary gland. Continue reading

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Lateral hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: July 30, 2018 at 8:42 pm

The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area,[1] contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system;[2] this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.[2][3][4] Clinically significant disorders that involve dysfunctions of the orexinergic projection system include narcolepsy, motility disorders or functional gastrointestinal disorders involving visceral hypersensitivity (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome),[3][5] and eating disorders.[6] The neurotransmitter glutamate and the endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and the orexin neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are the primary signaling neurochemicals in orexin neurons;[3][4][7] pathway-specific neurochemicals include GABA, melanin-concentrating hormone, nociceptin, glucose, the dynorphin peptides, and the appetite-regulating peptide hormones leptin and ghrelin, among others.[3][8] Notably, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures,[4][7] where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors form the CB1OX1 receptor heterodimer.[4][9][10] The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate the entirety of the remainder of the hypothalamus, with robust projections to the posterior hypothalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.[2][3] In addition to the histaminergic nucleus, the orexin system also projects onto the ventral tegmental area dopamine nucleus, locus ceruleus noradrenergic nucleus, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.[2][8] The histaminergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic nuclei which the lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons project onto constitute the primary components of the ascending reticular activating system.[13] Other output regions include: the ventromedial hypothalamus, medial and lateral septal nuclei, central medial amygdala, zona incerta, periaqueductal gray matter, lateral habenula, diagonal band, substantia innominata (contains the nucleus basalis), stria terminalis, prefrontal cortex, various brain stem substructures, including the rostral ventromedial medulla, rostral ventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, pontine micturition center, ventral respiratory group, and pontine respiratory group), area postrema, and dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve.[3][8] Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures,[4][7] where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors physically and functionally join together to form the CB1OX1 receptor heterodimer.[4][9][10] There is substantial anatomical and functional overlap and systemic cross-talk between the endocannabinoid system and orexin system within the central nervous system.[4] Through the diverse outputs of the orexin system, the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus mediate an array of functions. Continue reading

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Stria terminalis – Wikipedia

Posted: July 4, 2018 at 11:44 am

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. Serving as a major output pathway of the amygdala, the stria terminalis runs from its centromedial division to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Continue reading

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Ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: June 26, 2018 at 9:45 pm

The ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN, also sometimes referred to as the ventromedial hypothalamus, VMH) is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. “The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is a distinct morphological nucleus involved in terminating hunger, fear, thermoregulation, and sexual activity.”[1] This nuclear region is involved with the recognition of the feeling of fullness. It has four subdivisions: These subdivisions differ anatomically, neurochemically, and behaviorally. Continue reading

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Arcuate nucleus – Wikipedia

Posted: June 17, 2018 at 2:45 am

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH,[1] ARC,[2] or infundibular nucleus[2][3]) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. Continue reading

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