Page 1123

Category Archives: Hypothalamus

Arcuate nucleus – Wikipedia

Posted: June 17, 2018 at 2:45 am

The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (also known as ARH,[1] ARC,[2] or infundibular nucleus[2][3]) is an aggregation of neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus, adjacent to the third ventricle and the median eminence. Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Arcuate nucleus – Wikipedia

Stria terminalis – Wikipedia

Posted: June 16, 2018 at 1:42 am

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. Serving as a major output pathway of the amygdala, the stria terminalis runs from its centromedial division to the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Stria terminalis – Wikipedia

Hypothalamus | You and Your Hormones from the Society for …

Posted: June 14, 2018 at 5:40 am

Where is my hypothalamus? Computer artwork of a person’s head showing the left side of the brain with the hypothalamus highlighted. The hypothalamus is located on the undersurface of the brain Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Hypothalamus | You and Your Hormones from the Society for …

hypothalamus | Definition, Anatomy, & Function …

Posted: June 3, 2018 at 9:45 pm

Hypothalamus, region of the brain lying below the thalamus and making up the floor of the third cerebral ventricle. The hypothalamus is an integral part of the brain. It is a small cone-shaped structure that projects downward from the brain, ending in the pituitary (infundibular) stalk, a tubular connection to the pituitary gland Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on hypothalamus | Definition, Anatomy, & Function …

What is Hypothalamus, Parts of Hypothalamus with Pictures

Posted: May 31, 2018 at 11:46 pm

What is Hypothalamus – Brief Introduction: As you can see in the hypothalamus pictures, it measures about the size of an almond or pearl. It is an extremely important part of brain in human beings and other higher animals. Hypothalamus constitutes one of the four major components of diencephalon, while the other three are: thalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on What is Hypothalamus, Parts of Hypothalamus with Pictures

How does the hypothalamus control appetite? | Endocrine …

Posted: at 11:46 pm

Hidden in your hypothalamus, you have a satiety center that regulates your appetite. It’s controlled by two counter-balancing chemicals that are located side-by-side. – The satiety chemicals led by CART (the C stands for cocaine and A for amphetamine, since these drugs put this chemical into overdrive). Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on How does the hypothalamus control appetite? | Endocrine …

Hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: May 30, 2018 at 6:41 am

The hypothalamus (from Greek , “under” and , thalamus) is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis) Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Functions, Hypothalamus Hormones and Disorders – Health Jade

Posted: May 22, 2018 at 4:42 am

The hypothalamus (below the thalamus) is the inferior portion of the diencephalon. Projecting inferiorly from the hypothalamus is the pituitary gland (Figure 1) and the hypothalamus occupies approximately 2 per cent of the brain volume Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Functions, Hypothalamus Hormones and Disorders – Health Jade

Lateral hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: April 24, 2018 at 10:43 pm

The lateral hypothalamus, also called the lateral hypothalamic area,[1] contains the primary orexinergic nucleus within the hypothalamus that widely projects throughout the nervous system;[2] this system of neurons mediates an array of cognitive and physical processes, such as promoting feeding behavior and arousal, reducing pain perception, and regulating body temperature, digestive functions, and blood pressure, among many others.[2][3][4] Clinically significant disorders that involve dysfunctions of the orexinergic projection system include narcolepsy, motility disorders or functional gastrointestinal disorders involving visceral hypersensitivity (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome),[3][5] and eating disorders.[6] The neurotransmitter glutamate and the endocannabinoids (e.g., anandamide) and the orexin neuropeptides orexin-A and orexin-B are the primary signaling neurochemicals in orexin neurons;[3][4][7] pathway-specific neurochemicals include GABA, melanin-concentrating hormone, nociceptin, glucose, the dynorphin peptides, and the appetite-regulating peptide hormones leptin and ghrelin, among others.[3][8] Notably, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures,[4][7] where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors form the CB1OX1 receptor heterodimer.[4][9][10] The orexinergic projections from the lateral hypothalamus innervate the entirety of the remainder of the hypothalamus, with robust projections to the posterior hypothalamus, tuberomammillary nucleus (the histamine projection nucleus), the arcuate nucleus, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus.[2][3] In addition to the histaminergic nucleus, the orexin system also projects onto the ventral tegmental area dopamine nucleus, locus ceruleus noradrenergic nucleus, the serotonergic raphe nuclei, and cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus.[2][8] The histaminergic, dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic nuclei which the lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons project onto constitute the primary components of the ascending reticular activating system.[13] Other output regions include: the ventromedial hypothalamus, medial and lateral septal nuclei, central medial amygdala, zona incerta, periaqueductal gray matter, lateral habenula, diagonal band, substantia innominata (contains the nucleus basalis), stria terminalis, prefrontal cortex, various brain stem substructures, including the rostral ventromedial medulla, rostral ventrolateral medulla, nucleus ambiguus, solitary nucleus, spinal trigeminal nucleus, pontine micturition center, ventral respiratory group, and pontine respiratory group), area postrema, and dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve.[3][8] Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is colocalized on orexinergic projection neurons in the lateral hypothalamus and many output structures,[4][7] where the CB1 and orexin receptor 1 (OX1) receptors physically and functionally join together to form the CB1OX1 receptor heterodimer.[4][9][10] There is substantial anatomical and functional overlap and systemic cross-talk between the endocannabinoid system and orexin system within the central nervous system.[4] Through the diverse outputs of the orexin system, the orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus mediate an array of functions. Two of the most commonly noted functions of orexin peptides in the lateral hypothalamus are the promotion of feeding behavior and arousal (i.e., wakefulness).[3][6] More generally, the orexinergic neural projections of the lateral hypothalamus are involved in thermoregulation, regulating gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal function by way of the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve, reducing pain and nociception through several output structures (e.g., periaqueductal gray matter), modulating the rewarding property of stimuli through the ventral tegmental area projections and other outputs in the reward system, regulating energy homeostasis and neuroendocrine functions (e.g., HPA axis, HPG axis, and HPT axis) through other hypothalamic outputs, and regulating visceral functions (e.g., respiration, blood pressure, and micturition) via a group of structures in the brain stem, among other functions.[3][5][14] The endocannabinoid system and the orexin system mediate many of the same cognitive and physical effects, and a significant overlap in their function and localization has been noted in a 2013 medical review;[4] the CB1OX1 receptor heterodimer produces a 100-fold amplification of the potency of the orexin receptor 1-mediated ERK pathway signaling.[4] Unique functional interactions have been noted as well, such as an OX1-induced CB1 pressor response in the rostral ventrolateral medulla.[6][15][16] Narcolepsy is associated with a marked reduction in the number of orexinergic projection neurons from the lateral hypothalamus and very low orexin peptides in cerebrospinal fluid.[17] This has been identified as the mechanism responsible for narcoleptic symptoms.[17] Evidence suggest that OX1 neurons that synapse onto the dorsal nucleus of the vagus nerve and parts of the brain stem may play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic pain and visceral hypersensitivity in functional gastrointestinal disorders.[3][5] Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Lateral hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Location of the Hypothalamus | HHMI BioInteractive

Posted: March 30, 2018 at 2:19 pm

More About Location of the Hypothalamus A 3-D animation that shows the location of the hypothalamus in a mouse’s brain. Location of the Hypothalamus Background The hypothalamus is located in a very specific location of a mouse’s brain, just above the optic chiasm. This area controls much of a mouse’s basic behavior, including feeding. Continue reading

Posted in Hypothalamus | Comments Off on Location of the Hypothalamus | HHMI BioInteractive

Page 1123