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Category Archives: Picomedicine

Pico Medical Center – Los Angeles, CA – Reviews – Menu …

Posted: May 4, 2017 at 10:42 am

Voted #1 Collective in Mid City LA ! All FTP and Referrals receive a FREE Gram with minimum donation. -Happy Hour 10-11AM Free Gram Joints! NEW TOP SHELF DEALS CAP at 10/G!! NEW OFFICIAL COOKIE FAM STRAINS: -FREE Dabs ALL WEEKEND With Donations! -Official Cookie Fam Strains Are Available Exclusive Exotics Show Current Student Discount Save 5% Largest Concentrate Selection in Los Angeles All Award Winning Companies. Best Donations in LA on Concentrates Crumbles, Shatter, Oil, Vape Cartridge, Disposable Pens -We Bring to you a Boutique Selection of Flowers, Concentrates Edibles and More ! New Student Discount Program Save 5% when you Bring your Current Valid School ID with your Donation. -Large Green Gate With FREE Private Parking For our Patients. Enter Where Green Cross is Located. We’re in the building directly behind the 711 shopping plaza. – Over here at PMC, we pride ourselves in providing exceptional customer service as well as compassionate care. We strive to make our patients feel welcomed and at home on every single visit. With friendly and knowledgeable staff members that will take their time to make sure you are happy with your donation. By making sure you know everything you would like to about all the products we offer. Or by simply answering all questions or concerns you may have. Since the patients are the most important people here at Pico Medical Center. Come once and you will feel like family for the foreseeable future. See you soon!

-Enter Our Raffle with your Visit to win a Free Rig!! -5% OFF with Student ID Every Visit ! – Crown Mondays 20% off All Crown Products! -High Time Cannabis Cup Winning Concentrate Companies Best Donations in SOCAL!

-Every Monday is Crown Monday- Save 20% on All Crown Extracts Products ! -High quality indoor Medical strains and a wide variety of gourmet edibles carefully handled by loving and caring budtenders =)

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Pico Medical Center – Los Angeles, CA – Reviews – Menu …

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Guides: Evidence-Based Medicine Resource Guide: Clinical …

Posted: April 29, 2017 at 8:41 am

Two additional important elements of the well-built clinical question to consider are the type of foreground question and the type of study (methodology). This information can be helpful in focusing the question and determining the most appropriate type of evidence.

Foreground questions can be further divided into questions that relate to therapy, diagnosis, prognosis, etiology/harm

Knowing the type of foreground question can help you select the best study design to answer your question. You always want to look for the study design that will yield the highest level of evidence. Consult the pyramid (click the image to enlarge it) and the definitions below.

To see more info on the relationship between study design and question type, check out Chapter Four “What is the Question? from the Users’ Guide to the Medical Literature.

Definitions of Study Types (From BMJs Clinical Evidence Glossary)

Meta-analysis: A statistical technique that summarizes the results of several studies in a single weighted estimate, in which more weight is given to results of studies with more events and sometimes to studies of higher quality.

Systematic Review: a review in which specified and appropriate methods have been used to identify, appraise, and summarize studies addressing a defined question. (It can, but need not, involve meta-analysis). In Clinical Evidence, the term systematic review refers to a systematic review of RCTs unless specified otherwise.

Randomized Controlled Trial: a trial in which participants are randomly assigned to two or more groups: at least one (the experimental group) receiving an intervention that is being tested and another (the comparison or control group) receiving an alternative treatment or placebo. This design allows assessment of the relative effects of interventions.

Controlled Clinical Trial: a trial in which participants are assigned to two or more different treatment groups. In Clinical Evidence, we use the term to refer to controlled trials in which treatment is assigned by a method other than random allocation. When the method of allocation is by random selection, the study is referred to as a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Non-randomized controlled trials are more likely to suffer from bias than RCTs.

Cohort Study: a non-experimental study design that follows a group of people (a cohort), and then looks at how events differ among people within the group. A study that examines a cohort, which differs in respect to exposure to some suspected risk factor (e.g. smoking), is useful for trying to ascertain whether exposure is likely to cause specified events (e.g. lung cancer). Prospective cohort studies (which track participants forward in time) are more reliable than retrospective cohort studies.

Case control study: a study design that examines a group of people who have experienced an event (usually an adverse event) and a group of people who have not experienced the same event, and looks at how exposure to suspect (usually noxious) agents differed between the two groups. This type of study design is most useful for trying to ascertain the cause of rare events, such as rare cancers.

Case Series: analysis of series of people with the disease (there is no comparison group in case series).

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Guides: Evidence-Based Medicine Resource Guide: Clinical …

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Organizing Committe | Metabolomics Conferences …

Posted: July 12, 2016 at 5:18 am

Scott Tebbutt is Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, and Principal Investigator at the James Hogg Research Centre, Institute for Heart + Lung Health, St. Pauls Hospital, Vancouver, Canada. Since 2006, he has served as Co-Director of the Molecular Phenotyping and Genotyping Core of the James Hogg Research Centre, and he is currently Director of the Technology Development Core. He is also Chief Scientific Officer of the Prevention of Organ Failure (PROOF) Centre of Excellence, focused on heart, lung and kidney failure. Dr. Tebbutt earned his B.A. degree in Biochemistry from the University of Oxford (Oriel College), England in 1989, and his Ph.D. in Molecular Genetics from the University of East Anglia in 1993 (supervised by Dr. David Lonsdale, Cambridge Laboratory, John Innes Centre, England). He pursued post-doctoral fellowships in the laboratories of Professor Ann Harris (University of Oxford, Institute of Molecular Medicine) and Professor Diana Hill (University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand), where he studied the molecular genetics of cystic fibrosis. He was appointed Research Fellow at the University of Otago (1995-2001), leading a research team investigating the genomics of the sheep cystic fibrosis locus. He was seconded to a start-up biotechnology company (Global Technologies (NZ) Ltd.) as Director of Genomics (1999-2001). He moved to Canada in 2001, and was Senior Researcher in the Centre for Biomedical Research (University of Victoria, 2001-2002), prior to being recruited to the James Hogg Research Centre (formerly the iCAPTURE Centre) at St. Pauls Hospital, Vancouver (2002).

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Organizing Committe | Metabolomics Conferences …

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PICO – Evidence-Based Practice – LibGuides at Duke …

Posted: at 5:17 am

A clinical question needs to be directly relevant to the patient or problem at hand and phrased in such a way as to facilitate the search for an answer. PICO makes this process easier. It is a mnemonic for the important parts of a well-built clinical question. It also helps formulate the search strategy by identifying the key concepts that need to be in the article that can answer the question.

PICO or PICOTT:

PATIENT OR PROBLEM How would you describe a group of patients similar to yours? What are the most important characteristics of the patient?

INTERVENTION, EXPOSURE, PROGNOSTIC FACTOR What main intervention are you considering? What do you want to do with this patient?

COMPARISON What is the main alternative being considered, if any?

OUTCOME What are you trying to accomplish, measure, improve or affect?

Type of Question Therapy / Diagnosis / Harm / Prognosis / Prevention

Type of Study Systematic review / RCT / cohort study / case control

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PICO – Evidence-Based Practice – LibGuides at Duke …

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P I C O: Formulate an Answerable Question

Posted: at 5:17 am

Questions often spring to mind in a form that makes finding answers in the medical literature a challenge. Dissecting the question into its component parts and restructuring it so that it is easy to find the answers is an essential first step in Evidence Based Medicine (EBM). Many questions can be divided into 4 parts:

Many clinical or research questions can be divided into these four components, which we call P I C O. Try to use all four parts of the question, if possible.

Different types of questions

The most common type of clinical question is about how to treat a disease or condition. In Evidence Based Medicine (EBM), treatments and therapies are called interventions and such questions are questions of INTERVENTION.

Not all research questions are about interventions. Other types of questions may arise:

In each case the P I C O method can be used to formulate the question, as shown in the following examples. You can use the same approach to research qualitative questions about health issues of a more general nature (i.e. PHENOMENA). In this case, the question will consist of P and O only.

The studies that you will need to find in the course of your work will be different for each type of question and we will discuss this further in the next section.

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P I C O: Formulate an Answerable Question

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Sodium picosulfate (Dulcolax Pico). Constipation …

Posted: June 10, 2015 at 1:40 am

About sodium picosulfate Type of medicine Stimulant laxative Used for Constipation and before some surgery or medical examinations Also called For constipation: Dulcolax Pico For before medical procedures: CitraFleet; Picolax Available as Capsules, oral solution, sachets of powder

Constipation can be caused by a poor diet, not drinking enough water and not going to the toilet as soon as you feel you need to. Pregnancy, a lack of exercise or movement (such as being ill in bed) and some medicines, including some painkillers, can also cause constipation.

However, many people take laxatives when they do not need to because they believe that they are constipated unless they go to the toilet every day. This is not the case. A useful definition of constipation is going to the toilet less frequently than is normal for you, and passing hard stools (poo) when you do go.

Sodium picosulfate works by encouraging the muscles in your bowel to move waste products through your body. This helps you to go to the toilet. It usually has an effect within 6-12 hours. Sodium picosulfate preparations are available to buy without a prescription at pharmacies and other retail outlets.

Preparations containing sodium picosulfate (in combination with another laxative called magnesium citrate) are sometimes used to clear the bowel before some medical examinations. When it is used like this, you will be provided with sachets of powder by your hospital or clinic. You will also be given full instructions for how to use them.

The rest of the information in this leaflet is about sodium picosulfate when it is used for constipation.

To make sure this is the right treatment for you, ask for advice from a doctor or pharmacist before you start using sodium picosulfate if any of the following apply to you:

Along with their useful effects, most medicines can cause unwanted side-effects although not everyone experiences them. These usually improve as your body adjusts to the new medicine, but speak with your doctor or pharmacist if any of the following side-effects continue or become troublesome.

If you experience any other symptoms which you think may be due to this medicine, speak with your doctor or pharmacist.

Never take more than the prescribed dose. If you suspect that you or someone else might have taken an overdose of this medicine, go to the accident and emergency department of your local hospital at once. Take the container with you, even if it is empty.

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Sodium picosulfate (Dulcolax Pico). Constipation …

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Pico-Salax – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions – Drug …

Posted: May 31, 2015 at 4:42 pm

Drug Factsheets Health Home>>Medications (picosulfate sodium – magnesium oxide – citric acid) DIN (Drug Identification Number) 02254794 PICO-SALAX POWDER FOR SOLUTION How does Pico-Salax work? What will it do for me?

This is a combination product that contains three ingredients: picosulfate sodium, magnesium oxide, and citric acid. This medication is used to cleanse the bowel in preparation for a colonoscopy, barium enema x-ray exam, or surgical procedures that require a clean colon.

Picosulfate sodium belongs to the class of medications called stimulant laxatives, which activate the colon and stimulate the muscles in the colon to contract, causing a bowel movement. Magnesium oxide and citric acid combine to form magnesium citrate, which is an osmotic laxative that increases water in the colon. The combined effect clears out the bowels. Full bowel cleansing usually occurs within 3 to 6 hours or less.

This medication may be available under multiple brand names and/or in several different forms. Any specific brand name of this medication may not be available in all of the forms or approved for all of the conditions discussed here. As well, some forms of this medication may not be used for all of the conditions discussed here.

Your doctor may have suggested this medication for conditions other than those listed in these drug information articles. If you have not discussed this with your doctor or are not sure why you are taking this medication, speak to your doctor. Do not stop taking this medication without consulting your doctor.

Do not give this medication to anyone else, even if they have the same symptoms as you do. It can be harmful for people to take this medication if their doctor has not prescribed it.

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The usual dose depends on age and weight. The usual adult dose is 2 sachets 6 to 8 hours apart the day before the exam or surgery. The usual dose for children ages 1 to 6 years is sachet in the morning and sachet in the afternoon (6 to 8 hours later) the day before the procedure. For children ages 6 to 12 the usual dose is sachet in the morning and sachet in the afternoon (6 to 8 hours later) the day before the procedure.

The day before your procedure, dissolve one dose into 150mL of water. The exact hour you should take this depends on what time your procedure is scheduled for, and your doctor will give you specific instructions. The second dose is dissolved in 150mL water 6 to 8 hours later.

It is important to drink 1.5L to 2L of clear fluids (water; sports drinks; clear fruit juices such as apple, grape, or cranberry juice; broths) between doses: Drink about 250mL of water each hour after each dose until the effects of the medication have worn off and bowel movements have stopped.

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Pico-Salax – Uses, Side Effects, Interactions – Drug …

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Retrospective cohort study – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Posted: February 11, 2015 at 6:42 am

A retrospective cohort study, also called a historic cohort study, generally means to take a look back at events that already have taken place. For example, the term is used in medicine, describing a look back at a patient’s medical history or lifestyle. Retrospective cohort studies have existed for approximately as long as prospective cohort studies.[1]

It is a medical research study in which the medical records of groups of individuals who are alike in many ways but differ by a certain characteristic (for example, female nurses who smoke and those who do not smoke) are compared for a particular outcome (such as lung cancer).[2] In retrospective cohort studies, a risk ratio or odds ratio gives an assessment of relative risk.[3]

In the case of a retrospective cohort study, the investigator collects data from past records and does not follow patients up as is the case with a prospective study. However, the starting point of this study is the same as for all cohort studies. The first objective is still to establish two groups – exposed versus non-exposed; and these groups are followed up in the ensuing time period.

In a nutshell, in Retrospective Cohort Study, all the events – exposure, latent period, and subsequent outcome (ex. development of disease) have already occurred in the past. We merely collect the data now, and establish the risk of developing a disease if exposed to a particular risk factor. On the other hand, Prospective Cohort Study is conducted by starting with two groups at the current point, and following up in future for occurrence of disease, if any.

It is important to understand that the methodology of prospective and retrospective cohort studies is fundamentally the same, but the retrospective study is performed post-hoc, as the cohort is followed retrospectively. The time to complete a retrospective study is only as long as it takes to collect and interpret the data.[4] Retrospective studies examine possible risk and protection variables in relation to a result that is already established at the start of the study.[3]

Caution needs to be exercised, in particular, with retrospective cohort studies because errors due to confounding and bias are more common in retrospective studies than in prospective studies.[3]

Retrospective cohort studies have the following distinct advantages when compared with prospective cohort studies: they are conducted on a smaller scale,[5] they typically require less time to complete,[5] they are better for analysing multiple outcomes,[6] and, in a medical context, they can potentially address rare diseases, which would necessitate extremely large cohorts in prospective studies.[5] In such a study, diseased people have already been identified, so retrospective studies are especially helpful in addressing diseases of low incidence.[7] The fact that retrospective studies are generally less expensive than prospective studies also can be a key benefit.[6] These studies tend to be less expensive in part because outcome and exposure have already occurred, and the resources are mainly directed at collection of data only.[6] Additionally, it has essentially all the benefits of a Cohort Study (Statistics)

Retrospective studies have disadvantages vis-a-vis prospective studies. Among the disadvantages are that some key statistics cannot be measured, and significant biases may affect the selection of controls.[5] Additionally, major biases with retrospective cohort studies can impact the recall of former exposure to risk variables.[5] Among the biases which can negatively impact the veracity of this type of study are selection bias and misclassification or information bias as a result of the retrospective aspect.[8] With retrospective studies, the temporal relationship is frequently difficult to assess.[6] Further, those conducting retrospective studies can’t control exposure or outcome assessment, but instead need to rely on others for accurate record-keeping.[6] This is particularly problematic because it can be very difficult to make accurate comparisons between the exposed and non-exposed.[6] Retrospective studies also can need very large sample sizes for rare outcomes.[6]

This article incorporatespublic domain material from the U.S. National Cancer Institute document “Dictionary of Cancer Terms”.

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Examples of PICO Questions To learn more about Evidence …

Posted: January 29, 2015 at 8:41 am

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Original post:
Examples of PICO Questions To learn more about Evidence …

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PICO Questions – Ebling Library

Posted: at 8:41 am

Finding relevant medical information is often easier if you first develop a PICO question. This is a way of formulating a medical question to better match the capabilities of database (MEDLINE, etc.) search engines.

PICO is an acronym for:

PICO Example:

Therapy In a 4 year old boy requiring antibiotics, do probiotics decrease the risk of developing antibiotic associated diarrhea?

P = 4 yo male on antibiotics I = probiotics C = none/placebo O = decrease the risk of antibiotic associated diarrhea

PICO terms can be used to create a potential search strategy to search relevent EBM and health databases. Since terminology in the health in filled with synonyms, you may need to list and search multiple terms for a single concept:

P = antibiotics, antimicrobial agents I = probiotic, probiotics, lactobacillus, acidophilus O = diarrhea

From this PICO, a good search strategy might look like this:

(antibiotics OR antimicrobial agents) AND (probiotics OR lactobacillus OR acidophilus) AND diarrhea

Try using a PICO Worksheet to convert your scenario into a search query and process to find relevant articles in EBM resources and databases.

More:
PICO Questions – Ebling Library

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