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Hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: November 19, 2018 at 8:41 am

The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system.[1] In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon. Continue reading

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hypothalamus | Definition, Anatomy, & Function …

Posted: at 8:41 am

Hypothalamus, region of the brain lying below the thalamus and making up the floor of the third cerebral ventricle. Continue reading

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Hypothalamus: Function, hormones, and disorders

Posted: at 8:41 am

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Stria terminalis – Wikipedia

Posted: at 8:41 am

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. Continue reading

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Hypothalamus – Wikipedia

Posted: at 8:41 am

The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. One of the most important functions of the hypothalamus is to link the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system.[1] In the terminology of neuroanatomy, it forms the ventral part of the diencephalon Continue reading

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hypothalamus | Definition, Anatomy, & Function …

Posted: at 8:41 am

Hypothalamus, region of the brain lying below the thalamus and making up the floor of the third cerebral ventricle. The hypothalamus is an integral part of the brain. It is a small cone-shaped structure that projects downward from the brain, ending in the pituitary (infundibular) stalk, a tubular connection to the pituitary gland Continue reading

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Hypothalamus: Function, hormones, and disorders

Posted: at 8:41 am

Please accept our privacy terms We use cookies and similar technologies to improve your browsing experience, personalize content and offers, show targeted ads, analyze traffic, and better understand you. We may share your information with third-party partners for marketing purposes Continue reading

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Stria terminalis – Wikipedia

Posted: at 8:41 am

The stria terminalis (or terminal stria) is a structure in the brain consisting of a band of fibers running along the lateral margin of the ventricular surface of the thalamus. Continue reading

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Heart – Wikipedia

Posted: at 8:41 am

Heart The human heart The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.[1] Blood provides the body with oxygen and nutrients, as well as assists in the removal of metabolic wastes. In humans, the heart is located between the lungs, in the middle compartment of the chest.[3] In humans, other mammals, and birds, the heart is divided into four chambers: upper left and right atria; and lower left and right ventricles.[4][5] Commonly the right atrium and ventricle are referred together as the right heart and their left counterparts as the left heart Continue reading

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Ulcerative colitis – Wikipedia

Posted: at 8:41 am

Ulcerative colitisEndoscopic image of a colon affected by ulcerative colitis. The internal surface of the colon is blotchy and broken in places.SpecialtyGastroenterologySymptomsAbdominal pain, diarrhea mixed with blood, weight loss, fever, anemia[1]ComplicationsMegacolon, inflammation of the eye, joints, or liver, colon cancer[1][2]Usual onset1530 years or > 60 years[1]DurationLong term[1]CausesUnknown[1]Diagnostic methodColonoscopy with tissue biopsies[1]Differential diagnosisDysentery, Crohn’s disease, ischemic colitis[3]TreatmentDietary changes, medication, surgery[1]MedicationSulfasalazine, mesalazine, steroids, immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, biological therapy[1]FrequencyUp to 5 per 1000 people[4]Deaths47,400 together with Crohn’s (2015)[5] Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.[1][6] The primary symptoms of active disease are abdominal pain and diarrhea mixed with blood.[1] Weight loss, fever, and anemia may also occur.[1] Often, symptoms come on slowly and can range from mild to severe.[1] Symptoms typically occur intermittently with periods of no symptoms between flares.[1] Complications may include megacolon, inflammation of the eye, joints, or liver, and colon cancer.[1][2] The cause of UC is unknown.[1] Theories involve immune system dysfunction, genetics, changes in the normal gut bacteria, and environmental factors.[1][7] Rates tend to be higher in the developed world with some proposing this to be the result of less exposure to intestinal infections, or to a Western diet and lifestyle.[6][8] The removal of the appendix at an early age may be protective.[8] Diagnosis is typically by colonoscopy with tissue biopsies.[1] It is a kind of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) along with Crohn’s disease and microscopic colitis.[1] Dietary changes, such as maintaining a high-calorie diet or lactose-free diet, may improve symptoms.[1] Several medications are used to treat symptoms and bring about and maintain remission, including aminosalicylates such as mesalazine or sulfasalazine, steroids, immunosuppressants such as azathioprine, and biologic therapy.[1] Removal of the colon by surgery may be necessary if the disease is severe, does not respond to treatment, or if complications such as colon cancer develop.[1] Removal of the colon and rectum can cure the disease.[1][8] Together with Crohn’s disease, about 11.2 million people were affected as of 2015.[9] Each year it newly occurs in 1 to 20 per 100,000 people, and 5 to 500 per 100,000 individuals are affected.[6][8] The disease is more common in North America and Europe than other regions.[8] Often it begins in people aged 15 to 30 years, or among those over 60.[1] Males and females appear to be affected in equal proportions.[6] It has also become more common since the 1950s.[6][8] Together, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease affect about a million people in the United States.[10] With appropriate treatment the risk of death appears the same as that of the general population.[2] The first description of ulcerative colitis occurred around the 1850s.[8] The clinical presentation[13] of ulcerative colitis depends on the extent of the disease process. Patients usually present with diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus, of gradual onset that persists for an extended period (weeks) Continue reading

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