The cardiovascular system is so vital that its activity defines the presence of life. The cardiovascular system begins its activity when the fetus is barely a month old and is the last body system to cease activity at the end of life.
More than 80 million Americans have one or more types of cardiovascular disease which include hypertension, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and other congenital cardiovascular defects.Because of the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, nurses practicing in any setting should have a clear understanding of various conditions affecting the cardiovascular care.
To help you grasp the core concepts of Cardiovascular Care Nursing (or Cardiac Care Nursing), here are our visual nursing mnemonics and tips!
Heart blocks are abnormal heart rhythm where the heart beats too slowly. In this condition, the electrical signals that tell that heart to contract are partially or totally blocked between the upper chambers (atria) and lower chambers (ventricles).
When the right ventricle fails in right-sided heart failure, congestion in the peripheral tissues and the viscera predominates. This occurs because the right side of the heart cannot eject blood and cannot accommodate all the blood that normally returns to it from the venous circulation. Right-sided heart failure primarily produces systemic signs and symptoms.
Pulmonary congestion usually occurs in left-sided heart failure; when the left ventricle cannot effectively pump blood out of the ventricle into the aorta and to the systemic circulation. Blood volume and pressure in the left atrium increases which decreases blood flow from the pulmonary vessels. Pulmonary venous blood volume and pressure increase, forcing fluid from the pulmonary capillaries into the pulmonary tissues and alveoli, causing pulmonary interstitial edema and impaired gas exchange.
Management of HF are to relieve patient symptoms, to improve functional status and quality of life, and to extend survival. Medical management depends on the type, severity, and cause of HF it can include reducing the workload of the heart by reducing preload and afterload; elimination of contributing factors such as hypertension. Remember the mnemonic DAD BOND CLASH for the medical management of heart failure.
The excessive pressure on the artery walls caused by hypertension or high blood pressure can damage the blood vessels, as well as organs in the body. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it goes uncontrolled, the greater the damage. With time, hypertension increases the risk of heart disease, kidney disease, and stroke.
MONA is a mnemonic that stands for: Morphine, Oxygen, Nitrates, and Aspirin. These are the four primary interventions that are performed when treating a patient with Heart Attack/Myocardial Infarction (MI). However, MONA does not represent the order in which you should administer these treatments as a nurse. It is a mnemonic intended to help you remember the components of MI treatment, not the prioritization of them.
Goals of treatment during MI are to minimize myocardial damage, preserve myocardial function, and prevent complications. These goals can be achieved by reperfusing the area with the emergency use of thrombolytic medications or by PCI. Reducing myocardial oxygen demand, and increasing oxygen supply with medications, oxygen administration and bed rest can minimize myocardial damage.
Nursing care for patients who suffered MI is directed towards detecting complications, preventing further myocardial damage, and promoting comfort, rest, and emotional well-being.
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) mechanically circulates and oxygenates blood for the body while bypassing the heart and lungs. CPB maintains perfusion to body organs and tissues and allows the surgeon to complete the anastomosis in a motionless, bloodless, surgical field. CPB is not benign and there are a number of associated problems; use is limited to several hours.
In cardiac tamponade, blood or fluid collects in the pericardium, the sac surrounding the heart. Pericardial fluid may accumulate slowly without causing any noticeable symptoms until a large amount accumulates. However, a rapidly developing effusion can stretch the pericardium to its maximum size and, because of increased pericardial pressure, reduce venous return to the heart and decrease CO. It often has three characteristic signs that the physician will recognize during a physical exam. These signs are commonly referred to as Becks Triad or The 3 Ds.
More to be added soon
Know a few witty nursing mnemonics?If you somemnemonics about this topic, please do share them at our comments section below! Also, there are more nursing mnemonics here, be sure to check them out.
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