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Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

Posted: December 16, 2017 at 7:42 pm

Some people interchange Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC) because there are certain similarities between these two ailments. They are two different types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)1 the umbrella term for these conditions (Other lesser-known types of IBD include collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis.)

Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis both occur in teenagers and young adults. They affect women and men equally, and their symptoms are very similar. What’s more, their definitive causes have not yet been determined, although genes, environmental exposure, and poor immune response are both seen as contributing factors to both of these diseases.

However, what sets these two apart is the area (or areas) they affect. While they both cause chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, ulcerative colitis is limited to the rectum and colon, or the large intestine. It begins in the rectum or sigmoid colon, and spreads up through the colon as the disease progresses. The inflammation and irritation mostly affect only the innermost layer of the intestine lining.2 On the other hand, Crohn’s disease can manifest generally on any area throughout the GI, from the mouth to the anus. It may also appear in patches. Some areas may be affected, while some sections can be inflammation-free.3

However, it occurs in all the layers of the bowel walls (unlike UC, which only affects the innermost layer). As a result of the deep ulcers and tissue swelling, the bowel walls affected by Crohn’s disease become thicker, with a cobblestoned appearance. In ulcerative colitis, the bowel walls remain thin, but lose their vascular pattern (meaning the blood vessels are not visible), and there are no patches of healthy tissue that can be seen in the affected areas.

Another telltale sign of Crohn’s disease is the presence of granulomas, which are inflamed cells that are lumped together to form a lesion. Since granulomas are present in Crohn’s disease, but not in ulcerative colitis colitis, the presence of these can help your physician reach a definite diagnosis.

Crohn’s disease may also lead to complications like strictures, fistulas, and fissures, which are less frequent in UC cases. Both Crohn’s disease and UC are chronic conditions, meaning they may have periods of being symptom-free (remission), but with occasional flare-ups. Their symptoms are generally the same: cramping, persistent diarrhea, and abdominal pain.4

However, Crohn’s disease patients usually feel the pain in their lower right abdomen, while UC patients experience it in the lower left abdomen. Most UC patients also have some bloody discharge with their stool, while this occurs much less commonly in people with Crohn’s disease.

Crohn’s Disease Types

Crohn’s Disease Causes

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Crohns Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

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List of Ulcerative Colitis Medications (85 Compared) – Drugs.com

Posted: at 7:42 pm

Lialda Rx B N 16reviews

8.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

7.0

Generic name:prednisone systemic

Drug class: glucocorticoids

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

7.0

Generic name:infliximab systemic

Drug class: antirheumatics, TNF alfa inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

7.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Brand names: Lialda, Apriso, Asacol, Delzicol, Asacol HD, Canasa, Pentasa, Rowasa, Salofalk, Mesasal Enteric Coated, Canasa Pac

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:azathioprine systemic

Brand names: Imuran, Azasan

Drug class: antirheumatics, other immunosuppressants

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:adalimumab systemic

Drug class: antirheumatics, TNF alfa inhibitors

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:azathioprine systemic

Drug class: antirheumatics, other immunosuppressants

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

4.0

Generic name:sulfasalazine systemic

Brand names: Azulfidine, Sulfazine, Azulfidine EN-tabs

Drug class: antirheumatics, 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

9.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

7.0

Generic name:balsalazide systemic

Brand names: Colazal, Giazo

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

7.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

9.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

8.0

Generic name:mesalamine systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

5.0

Generic name:budesonide systemic

Drug class: glucocorticoids

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:budesonide systemic

Brand name: Uceris

Drug class: inhaled corticosteroids, glucocorticoids

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: A-Z Drug Facts, AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

6.0

Generic name:balsalazide systemic

Drug class: 5-aminosalicylates

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

For professionals: AHFS DI Monograph, Prescribing Information

5.0

Generic name:vedolizumab systemic

Drug class: selective immunosuppressants

For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects

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List of Ulcerative Colitis Medications (85 Compared) – Drugs.com

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What is Stem Cell Research? (with pictures) – wiseGEEK

Posted: at 7:41 pm

anon950526Post 156

Is there any impact due to this?

Obviously, some of you dont have kids. The life of a child is worth so much more than any adult. You got to live. What if that embryo happened to be you? Would you then feel that it is OK to conduct this research?

I am a mother of two, soon to be three. I don’t care about any of that just long as my kids at least get a chance at living and there is a God. I had a 50 percent chance of having babies because of a huge benign tumor that grew on my left ovary and killed my left fallopian tube.

I prayed for my babies and got them every time. Besides that, everybody has their

I watched this gruesome abortion video and the lady was 12 weeks along. You could see the child trying to fight for its life. Murder is murder. Helping to save other people or not — that’s like you seeing a man trying to rape a woman and you shoot him dead. It’s the same if you were trying to save her life but you get persecuted and convicted for taking matters into your own hands. I am sorry for those people who are sick and have sick babies. I know what it is like to lose loved ones over untreatable diseases. Im against embryo research and I’m not thinking about me. It is about a baby. Sure, it isnt completely formed, but it’s still a child, or at least will grow into one, I wish harm on nobody. There is no harm meant and Im not trying to make someone mad. Im just trying to throw some new views into the situation.

Stem cell research can only benefit society and advance us as a species. If your argument is religious, the you are not thinking. You are letting your emotions and beliefs speak for you, not your logic or common sense. A bunch of cells is not a baby, and helping the living is not against “God’s will”. This is a good thing and it will continue regardless of religious views, because it makes sense.

I’m still kind of learning about this topic, but abortion is something I feel strongly against, but if a baby was taken from it’s mother with the mother’s okay and they were trying to save people’s lives, I would be completely okay with that.

I believe that God does not exist, and that stem cell research is truly phenomenal. This research should not be controversial, nor should it be banned; it is helping the living.

Most of the people who say that stem cell research is bad are religious, but people living in the real world and believe in this thing called ‘science’ actually make a difference. Religion has only held back society and science. I wonder how many religious people would get angry if they knew that I was a homosexual, atheist physicist who believes in evolution and the big bang theory.

I am writing a persuasive essay on whether stem cell research should be legal or not (even though it already is in the U.S.). I was never a really religious person and stuck mainly to things that I knew for sure were happening. The thing is, most of the stem cells they are using for research are going to be discarded anyway. No one is claiming them, no one is caring about them, and they are just going to be thrown away. It is better for them to be used for a greater cause than just being thrown away and losing the chance to create treatments and cures for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

Without trying to offend anyone, please don’t

bring God into this, like if you’re going to simply take the stem cells and create babies with them. The cells could be considered early life, but you lose cells every day and no one gives it a second thought. I am thirteen years old and sorry if you believe that I am wrong.

This is a terrible thing. Stem cell research is just an excuse for making us Americans pay for other peoples’ abortions. This stem cell research crap may have fooled my friends who claim abortion is when the baby isn’t fully developed and that it’s murder to kill a baby after it’s born. What’s the difference? Abortion is murder.

This country is so corrupt it will probably start killing the elderly and calling it abortion, or calling every day murder of people abortion. Well, I have had enough of this crap Obama is trying to trick us with. God says life is precious and an undeveloped baby is made of many cells and cells are alive. Think about that, America. Not only that, but abortion is unnecessary. If a girl gets raped, she can put the baby up for adoption instead of murdering the baby. Studies show many women who had abortions regret it.

So what you are all arguing about is if god exists and whats his plan for us, and why or why should we not use pre-embryo stem cells. It’s completely your own opinion, but when does life start for a baby — when the sperm reaches the egg or when you hear his heartbeat?

I, for one, say we should not use embryo stem cells because they are a living being. Also for all of you who say its gods plan for us, who created god? He could not just have created himself out of nowhere. These are just my thoughts. But these are all still questions we do not know the answer to.

I’ve been researching this Stem Cell subject for a long time, and I’m so amazed at everyone’s stories from the news and sites on how stem cells has helped them recover from so many types of sicknesses and diseases. Even cancer can be cured by this type of treatment.

One big factor is that it’s not a drug but it will just treat your body in a nice and natural way. Stem cell therapy is nice but I found this Laminine on the market. People keep on talking about it, saying it’s the new science breakthrough and that I should give a try. It’s not a literal stem cell but it is a stem cell enhancer, and safer than the usual way of Stem Cell Therapy.

I gave it a try and in just a few weeks I felt its proven power that I also recommend it to everyone out there.

How is that clump of cells considered a newborn? Those cells aren’t a newborn because there’s still a chance that once you implant those embryos they don’t hold, so it’s not a child. They don’t take these people’s cells then say, nope you can’t have your child — we’re going to use them for someone else. They’re leftovers. No one is going to use them and they are going to get discarded. If you consider it a human how is it humane to let it sit there frozen forever, discarded and unloved? People throwing god around are ignorant. Not everyone believes in your “creator” and don’t throw it in my face. Believe in your beliefs, but don’t force mine.

@post 52: If there is no God, who do you think made the universe? Your dad didn’t make it, I didn’t make, you didn’t make, nor did any person. Only an eternal being must have made the universe.

Look. What none of you guys are realizing is that embryonic stem cell research doesn’t focus solely on embryos.

I’m a student getting my masters degree in pediatric nursing, so you guys can’t say I don’t know this. But maybe if you did some research instead of arguing that everyone except yourself is wrong, you would realize there are valid points to both sides.

Embryonic stem cell research also focuses on umbilical cords and placentas, which does no harm to the baby whatsoever. Now none of you can say that’s “murder” or against your religion because I’m Roman Catholic, which is one of the main religions against stem cell research and I am personally all for it.

Now if embryos

Enough about manipulating death and being religiously wrong. Enough said, simple as that.

A novel called “Living Proof” just came out in stores this week that explores the life and death issue of embryonic stem cell research for the first time as a story. It’s getting a lot of buzz online and pertains directly to this discussion.

Most say stem cell research is bad because scientists are trying to pay God, but that’s a bunch of crap. Like what others have said, God created us, knowing that one day we would come up with this knowledge to maybe find cures. Somebody else stated that we are ungrateful because we want to use this research, but that’s not entirely true, because we are grateful for this new research to cure people like me. Yes I said me. I’m a 16 year old diabetic. I may not suffer as much as others with other diseases, but I have.

Also, this same person said that we should be the ones serving overseas. Well, if you’ve paid attention, we can’t because

Anyway, most don’t know what it’s like to stick a big needle into their own skin every day, but I do. They also don’t know what its like to wake up very weak due to a low blood sugar, or to throw up because you get ketones due to not having any more insulin going through their body.

Lastly, most of you probably aren’t scared to go to bed, knowing that you might not wake up because you went low, with no one knowing and died. Yes, I know diabetes isn’t the worse disease out there, but it’s not easy either. I don’t really like abortion, but at least the fetus could help cure many people, and not just get thrown away.

In a way, the government not allowing stem cell research, and the people against it can be considered murderers too, because they are standing in the way of curing people, which could save their lives. This is how our country is going downhill, not the other way around.

Finally, you say how a human life is so important, and yes it is, but who’s to say that an animal’s life isn’t? People abuse animals, use them to test new products, that most people use, but I don’t see you caring about that. Yes, some people do, but most don’t give a crap. And I mean, didn’t God create animals too, so shouldn’t they be just as important as humans?

Yeah, so that’s all I have to say. Hopefully this will make people use their brains a little more, because the people who are against it only really seem to care about themselves, not the people who are actually suffering!

The controversy surrounding the morality of stem cell research is centered around the creation, usage, and destruction of the human embryos. Currently, the limits of technological advancement require the destruction of the human embryo in creating the human embryonic stem cell. Various groups view an embryo as an early-aged human life. As a result, they are concerned with the rights and status of the embryo, and often go so far as to equate such research with murder because of the embryos destruction. However, despite scientific evidence suggesting that the early-stage embryos being used are not early-aged human life, the importance of these embryonic stem cells and their contribution to scientific advancement is tremendous.

Stem cells are cells in the human

John Stuart Mills principle of Utilitarianism also supports the morality of stem cell research. Utilitarianism states that an actions moral worth is determined solely by its contribution to the happiness of all parties involved. The phrase the greatest good for the greatest number of people is often used to describe this principle. But more precisely, the true morality of such research is exhibited in the concept of Negative Utilitarianism. Negative Utilitarianism requires us to promote the least amount of harm, or prevent the greatest amount of suffering for the greatest number of people.

Since science has established that are embryos not yet human, any harm inflicted on them does not weigh in on the moral worth of the action. However, the development of treatments that could potentially cure conditions such as Parkinsons disease and Alzheimers would weigh in on its moral worth. As a result, the prevention of suffering made possible by stem cell research and its potential medical advancements far outweigh any harm inflicted on the embryos, even if the embryos were given moral standing. Thus, by means of Negative Utilitarianism, the morality of stem cell research cannot be called into question.

This is modern day fascism. You shouldn’t choose what life has more importance. Speaking as a veteran, people like this make me regret serving an ungrateful country, full of morally degraded people. These people who believe in this should have been the ones overseas. Then tell me how easy it is to choose one life over the other. Those people make me sick, and will be the downfall of this country.

Fundamentalists never fail to amaze me with their ability to only read half the story. The embryos used in stem cell research would be discarded anyway – stem cell research isn’t denying them a chance at life, they had no chance at life in the first place. It isn’t the same thing as abortion.

And I hope the fundies who are making comments along the lines of “We suffer because God wills it” never take antibiotics when they are sick – surely that would be messing with God’s plan for you to die from a disease that modern science can easily cure?

Any opponent to stem cell research on the grounds of all this embryo is a human life crap is nothing but a ignorant idiotic hypocrite and the same goes for anti abortionists.

Why claim to give a crap at all about so called life when none of you seem to give a crap about the starving millions in underdeveloped countries, the starving on the street, those on death row etc.? What about those lives? Aren’t they more convincing examples of ‘life’ than a pile of embryonic goo? Are they not deserving of all the fuss you make over the value of human life?

You people seem more concerned with spouting your ignorant, selfish beliefs and halting progress that could one

Is there any difference between you people in regards to this and those that shared the same beliefs that used to carry out witch hunts all those many years ago? one has to wonder.

i think that stem cell affords advancements to the medical industry. people should stop trying to use the phrase “who are we to play god”. if that is the case then don’t take medication to relieve pain because under those conditions would that also be playing god?

Remember that some stem cells are taken from the umbilical cord and adult tissue, not just embryos. You wouldn’t call it murder if the cells were taken from an inanimate piece of flesh, would you?

I have been reading comments and “playing god” is stupid. Getting and giving shots are playing god implants and anything like that is playing god. you’re not letting what happens happen. I read about a wife with four kids with Cystic Fibrosis. finding a cure for that would be playing god. That would be taking his power to save a child.

I think it’s all right. People are going to abort fetuses no matter what you say or how you feel. You can say it’s wrong and waste it or you can use it to support something new and know you helped to save a life. Would you honestly say that because of what you think you should throw away something that could help people just because its from something not even alive yet?

O.K. so it might be alive, but at an older age in the pregnancy. And people are right: if someone you love was dying, you would not just sit there and watch and say, oh well, too bad for you. You would try to help no matter what the cost.

I don’t know what is so bad about trying to save life. Stem cell research has advanced into the stages of using actual cells from adults, (Somatic cells) and this is pushing research today. Take some time and do the “current” research about stem cells and educate yourselves.

As far as the religious perspective goes I am a Christian and “God” gave me the cells in my body and if those cells that “God” gave have a way of saving my life, then that is his will. Helping your body heal is not playing God, it is using what God gave you!

I’m curious; What defines something as “live”? When does life begin? Well, does it not begin at fertilization when the cells go through meiosis? And the DNA is replicated? Well here’s what I have to say.

Again, what defines something as a “Live” human? Is it size? Level of development? Environment?

Degree of dependency?

If it’s based on size, then isn’t that size-ism? Does that mean our society is saying that the unborn aren’t human because they aren’t as big as us? Yes, an unborn baby isn’t as big as a toddler, but a toddler isn’t as big as a full grown adult. So does that mean that they toddler isn’t human either? Or in any way less human

Level of development: Some argue that since the unborn aren’t fully developed yet, they aren’t human. I’m 15 and I’m not fully developed; does that mean I’m not human? No. I’m still growing. Development doesn’t stop at birth. It starts at conception.

The most common argument in this category is the baby can’t think, or feel pain, or even know that they exist. I beg to differ. There was an article published in a newspaper that said a doctor was performing an abortion, and on the screen, you could see the baby trying to get away from the tool trying to pull it out. In another, there was a case where the baby stuck its hand out and held onto the doctor’s finger. Look it up.

We say that they can’t feel pain, so they aren’t human. But what about those with Sepa disease? They are born unable to feel pain; can we go and kill them too? They can’t feel pain so they aren’t human, so it’s okay, right? Wrong.

Environment: Most common argument: The unborn baby isn’t in the world yet, it’s in the mother’s body, and it doesn’t even breathe air. This argument seems to be saying that the unborn child isn’t human because it’s in a different environment then we are. But, since when does where we are, determine who we are? In our day to day lives, we change our environment multiple times. But it doesn’t change who we are as a person, unless you have a multiple personality disorder.

So here’s a question; How does the eight-inch trip down the birth canal change who you are as a blob of tissue, into a valued human being with rights? Truth be told, it doesn’t. Another argument is the unborn baby is in the mother’s body, which is her body, so the mother should be able to do what ever she wants with that baby. So what’s the difference between a baby the day before it’s born, and one day after?

A day before: Not fully developed; dependent on the mother; in the mother’s body — her property.

A day after: Not fully developed; dependent on the mother; in the mother’s house — her property

What makes it okay to kill the one but not the other?

There was a case where a man went and murdered a pregnant woman and was charged with double murder. In that case, the government and court are considering that fetus is a life with value. However, in the same time, something like 32 abortions were performed under the protection of the law. How come those babies don’t get the same justification? Is it because they aren’t wanted? If an orphan was murdered, would no one care because they weren’t wanted? Of course not. It’s absurd to me the double standard in our society.

Degree of Dependency: Arguments are that if the unborn baby is still dependent on the mother, and can’t survive on their own yet, they aren’t human. Even a one week old baby is still dependent on the mother. It will be for a while.

Once again, I’m 15 and I can’t survive on my own. I depend on my parents. I depend on my government and school system, I depend on my friends. I’m dependent. But do I not have value and rights?

What about those who depend on medical instruments? And life support?

Parents depend on others to provide them with jobs, food and money, with places for their children to go to get an education. Our classrooms are getting smaller and smaller due to the number of abortions each year. But again, does this affect a person’s humanity in some way because they depend on someone? You’re going through a divorce and you need someone to lean on; you’re depending on them. Oh, yeah, sorry for the bad timing, but oh geez this is tough, you’re not human, so we’re going to have to kill you. No, I don’t think so.

What about those on welfare? Can we kill them too because they depend on the government to provide them with money? I don’t think so. We are all dependent on someone to a degree. But who goes around saying that those who depend on someone are less human or not human at all? No one. Why? Because it’s hypocritical and illogical. But somehow, our society is able to accept this argument when it comes to unborn children. The faces of tomorrow. We are the people are today, and we’re killing tomorrow’s people.

So if we use these arguments to allow the killing of the unborn, then we should be allowed to kill: Any child; those on welfare; those with medical tools and medications; those with mental disabilities. They aren’t what people consider “the norm”- are very dependent, usually have a difference in size, aren’t developed as much as those who are not disabled, and depending on the case, their environment may be different then ours. And so on and so forth.

Of course not. We would never dream of doing that. It upsets many many people even using those cases as examples. So it should be clear that the unborn are human, as well as those with developmental disabilities, differences, different circumstances- welfare, etc., and the sick.

For people who don’t understand, here is what I’m saying. I am pro choice- that women should have choices to do what they want in life from the unimportant (what flavor of ice cream I want) to the extremely important (what career I want to pursue) but should not have the “right” to make a choice about another person’s life. You don’t get to decide who lives or dies.

I do not believe we should use stem cells. If we can cure all diseases and grow back body parts then we will evidently live a very, very, very long time. This could potentially result in an overpopulation problem which we are currently starting to experience.

Humans were not meant to live forever, and maybe you should ask yourself: do you really want to live forever?

To those people who say that it’s okay for scientists to do stem cell research, yes it’s okay for them to do research to improve other people’s lives without using stupid, dangerous chemicals on the cells. Some aspects of stem cell research, is not just against religious values, but also against our morals in general.

Thank you anon332, for trying to knock some sense into these people, who think that science always does good things. Wake up!

Religion is a vessel of our hopes, fears and a face of the unexplained. Without religion, science would grow like a cancer, and without science the other way around. Balance is what is needed.

For those who believe in God, it would not be that with stem cells we are playing God. The man or woman will live because God had willed it.

For those who don’t, embryos are lives. A full life. Of course, this is only my opinion.

The world makes us what we are. It influences our choices and our minds. Everything around us at every moment is changing us.

In short, the world makes us what we are, but we make the world as how it is.

Science without religion is blasphemous. Religion without science is idiocy.

I believe stem cell research is definitely a good thing for people that are sick. I don’t think people should be allowed to use a fetus for the research, but embryonic research is ethical. The embryo isn’t yet developing human characteristics the way a fetus is.

I will begin by saying that I am a 14 year old girl of undecided religious beliefs. I have read many of these comments, and I have a few ideas which may help/clear up some misconceptions.

As of now, I do not officially believe in God. I do, however, understand many religions and I have accepted religious beliefs and ideas, especially those pertaining to abortion and stem cell research. Here are some of my views on the subject. I have tried to incorporate all the different positions on the subject:

1. Embryos are not fetuses and stem cell research is not the same as abortion. Fetuses are developed forms in which the cells have begun to specialize. Embryos are clusters

2. If an embryo is not used, it can be donated, either to research or to another parent, or it can be thrown away. Based on the dilemmas that seem to be arising, i am assuming that no one is of the belief that throwing away the embryos is in the best interest of anyone. That leaves donation to a parent or donation to research. If the decision is made to donate to another parent, then I think that is fine. If that idea is declined, then I don’t see why a group of cells shouldn’t be used to potentially help others. If a leftover embryo is just going to be thrown away, then why would the people throwing it away care if it were used. Remember, an embryo does not have even the most remote form of a brain or a heart.

3. If the argument is about whether or not the embryo has a soul, I cannot help. I do not believe that a random grouping of cells has a soul. I do not even necessarily believe in souls.

4. In this article, it says that the most common argument against stem cells is the belief in man not manipulating human life. I cannot say whether or not this is actually the big argument, but for those people who do believe that i will ask, “Have you been vaccinated? Have you ever taken any medicine for an illness? Is this not manipulating life?”. If one believes that Man should not be allowed to manipulate life, then they should also believe that medicines and known cures should not be used. if a person gets pneumonia, should the doctors just let them die because they don’t believe in manipulating life? Isn’t that murder?

As for manipulating the embryo, I can only repeat that I do not personally believe that a group of unspecialized cells should be treated as humans.

5. I do not believe that stem cell research should be used for cloning. As for “creating another you” in case you get diseases later in life, watch or read “My Sister’s Keeper”.

6. As for the ethics, there are generally five ethical approaches: utilitarian-whatever does the most good and the least harm, Rights-whatever considers the rights of everyone involved, Fairness of Justice-treats all equally and proportionally, Common good-the values of Confucianism or putting the group before the individual, and Virtue-what will make me more of the person i want to be? If using an organism that is displaying the characteristics of life, but that is not developed into a fetus will help others, I don’t see how it contradicts any of the ethical approaches.

6. If I decidedly believed in God, I would say, “God made us. I believe he made us for a reason. He gave us prayer and life. He also gave us doctors and medicine. we should use them”.

7. For those who say “if your loved one was dying, then your view would change” you are correct. Their view would change, but do we really want a society where people make official decisions based on the health status of their loved ones, when they are stressed and not thinking clearly?

These are the things I have come up with. I didn’t mean to offend anyone with my statements, and if I did, I am sorry.

Yeah, they are not using a fetus. they are using an embryo, which there is a huge difference.

Number one, they are not using a fetus; which i agree is human. The embryos used for stem cell research are four to five days old and have no specialized tissues, no nervous system, or heart. Each embryo contains about one-hundred cells, the cells of which are still undifferentiated (meaning that the cell has not decided what it is going to be).

For those of you saying that we are playing god. Is not God’s greatest gift the gift of life? After IVF a woman has limited choices what to do with her leftover embryos. She may donate to another couple, donate to research, keep the embryos for maybe future implantation, or she may discard them.

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What is Stem Cell Research? (with pictures) – wiseGEEK

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Adult Stem Cells – Therapies and Treatments

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This website provides scientific facts and concise information for those of us who are not scientists, researchers or medical professionals. You will learn answers toquestions like …”Who is benefitting from stem cell research and therapies today?” and “What types of stem cells are working?” In addition, basic questions such as”What is a stem cell?””Why do we need stem cell research?” are answered.

The video patient profiles featured on this site emphasize ADULT stem cell advances with the goal of informing and the hope of inspiring you to take action. These real-life stories represent a small sampling of people and the many diseases and conditions now being helped by adult stem cells naturally found in the human body. Stem Cell Research Facts illustrates how current adult treatments and therapies directly impact the lives of patients and their families today – as opposed to debating themerits of other types of stem cell research.

We invite you to discover, learn and share the incredible possibilites of stem cell research. We welcome your feedback and encourage you to return for the latest developments in the world of stem cell research. Thank you!

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Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

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This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell.

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition.

Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.

Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells, to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. This controversy is often related to abortion politics and to human cloning. Additionally, efforts to market treatments based on transplant of stored umbilical cord blood have been controversial.

For over 30 years, bone marrow has been used to treat cancer patients with conditions such as leukaemia and lymphoma; this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced.[1][2][3] During chemotherapy, most growing cells are killed by the cytotoxic agents. These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. It is this side effect of conventional chemotherapy strategies that the stem-cell transplant attempts to reverse; a donor’s healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host’s body during treatment. The transplanted cells also generate an immune response that helps to kill off the cancer cells; this process can go too far, however, leading to graft vs host disease, the most serious side effect of this treatment.[4]

The paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome, has been found to be the predominant mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative, auto-immune and/or inflammatory diseases.[5] The stem cell secretome therefore is being researched and applied for medical use itself as a cell-free medicinal product.

Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal, was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids.[6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. MSCs are purified from the marrow, cultured and packaged, with up to 10,000 doses derived from a single donor. The doses are stored frozen until needed.[7]

The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases.[8]

In 2014, the European Medicines Agency recommended approval of Holoclar, a treatment involving stem cells, for use in the European Union. Holoclar is used for people with severe limbal stem cell deficiency due to burns in the eye.[9]

Stem cells are being studied for a number of reasons. The molecules and exosomes released from stem cells are also being studied in an effort to make medications.[10]

Research has been conducted on the effects of stem cells on animal models of brain degeneration, such as in Parkinson’s, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease.[11][12][13] There have been preliminary studies related to multiple sclerosis.[14][15]

Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. In healthy adult laboratory animals, progenitor cells migrate within the brain and function primarily to maintain neuron populations for olfaction (the sense of smell). Pharmacological activation of endogenous neural stem cells has been reported to induce neuroprotection and behavioral recovery in adult rat models of neurological disorder.[16][17][18]

Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons and oligodendrocytes within the brain. A small clinical trial was underway in Scotland in 2013, in which stem cells were injected into the brains of stroke patients.[19]

Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[20][21][22]

The pioneering work[23] by Bodo-Eckehard Strauer has now been discredited by the identification of hundreds of factual contradictions.[24] Among several clinical trials that have reported that adult stem-cell therapy is safe and effective, powerful effects have been reported from only a few laboratories, but this has covered old[25] and recent[26] infarcts as well as heart failure not arising from myocardial infarction.[27] While initial animal studies demonstrated remarkable therapeutic effects,[28][29] later clinical trials achieved only modest, though statistically significant, improvements.[30][31] Possible reasons for this discrepancy are patient age,[32] timing of treatment[33] and the recent occurrence of a myocardial infarction.[34] It appears that these obstacles may be overcome by additional treatments which increase the effectiveness of the treatment[35] or by optimizing the methodology although these too can be controversial. Current studies vary greatly in cell-procuring techniques, cell types, cell-administration timing and procedures, and studied parameters, making it very difficult to make comparisons. Comparative studies are therefore currently needed.

Stem-cell therapy for treatment of myocardial infarction usually makes use of autologous bone-marrow stem cells (a specific type or all), however other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells.[36] Adult stem cell therapy for treating heart disease was commercially available in at least five continents as of 2007.[citation needed]

Possible mechanisms of recovery include:[11]

It may be possible to have adult bone-marrow cells differentiate into heart muscle cells.[11]

The first successful integration of human embryonic stem cell derived cardiomyocytes in guinea pigs (mouse hearts beat too fast) was reported in August 2012. The contraction strength was measured four weeks after the guinea pigs underwent simulated heart attacks and cell treatment. The cells contracted synchronously with the existing cells, but it is unknown if the positive results were produced mainly from paracrine as opposed to direct electromechanical effects from the human cells. Future work will focus on how to get the cells to engraft more strongly around the scar tissue. Whether treatments from embryonic or adult bone marrow stem cells will prove more effective remains to be seen.[37]

In 2013 the pioneering reports of powerful beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow stem cells on ventricular function were found to contain “hundreds” of discrepancies.[38] Critics report that of 48 reports there seemed to be just five underlying trials, and that in many cases whether they were randomized or merely observational accepter-versus-rejecter, was contradictory between reports of the same trial. One pair of reports of identical baseline characteristics and final results, was presented in two publications as, respectively, a 578 patient randomized trial and as a 391 patient observational study. Other reports required (impossible) negative standard deviations in subsets of patients, or contained fractional patients, negative NYHA classes. Overall there were many more patients published as having receiving stem cells in trials, than the number of stem cells processed in the hospital’s laboratory during that time. A university investigation, closed in 2012 without reporting, was reopened in July 2013.[39]

One of the most promising benefits of stem cell therapy is the potential for cardiac tissue regeneration to reverse the tissue loss underlying the development of heart failure after cardiac injury.[40]

Initially, the observed improvements were attributed to a transdifferentiation of BM-MSCs into cardiomyocyte-like cells.[28] Given the apparent inadequacy of unmodified stem cells for heart tissue regeneration, a more promising modern technique involves treating these cells to create cardiac progenitor cells before implantation to the injured area.[41]

The specificity of the human immune-cell repertoire is what allows the human body to defend itself from rapidly adapting antigens. However, the immune system is vulnerable to degradation upon the pathogenesis of disease, and because of the critical role that it plays in overall defense, its degradation is often fatal to the organism as a whole. Diseases of hematopoietic cells are diagnosed and classified via a subspecialty of pathology known as hematopathology. The specificity of the immune cells is what allows recognition of foreign antigens, causing further challenges in the treatment of immune disease. Identical matches between donor and recipient must be made for successful transplantation treatments, but matches are uncommon, even between first-degree relatives. Research using both hematopoietic adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells has provided insight into the possible mechanisms and methods of treatment for many of these ailments.[citation needed]

Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red blood cells. In this process, HSCs are grown together with stromal cells, creating an environment that mimics the conditions of bone marrow, the natural site of red-blood-cell growth. Erythropoietin, a growth factor, is added, coaxing the stem cells to complete terminal differentiation into red blood cells.[42] Further research into this technique should have potential benefits to gene therapy, blood transfusion, and topical medicine.

In 2004, scientists at King’s College London discovered a way to cultivate a complete tooth in mice[43] and were able to grow bioengineered teeth stand-alone in the laboratory. Researchers are confident that the tooth regeneration technology can be used to grow live teeth in human patients.

In theory, stem cells taken from the patient could be coaxed in the lab turning into a tooth bud which, when implanted in the gums, will give rise to a new tooth, and would be expected to be grown in a time over three weeks.[44] It will fuse with the jawbone and release chemicals that encourage nerves and blood vessels to connect with it. The process is similar to what happens when humans grow their original adult teeth. Many challenges remain, however, before stem cells could be a choice for the replacement of missing teeth in the future.[45][46]

Heller has reported success in re-growing cochlea hair cells with the use of embryonic stem cells.[47]

Since 2003, researchers have successfully transplanted corneal stem cells into damaged eyes to restore vision. “Sheets of retinal cells used by the team are harvested from aborted fetuses, which some people find objectionable.” When these sheets are transplanted over the damaged cornea, the stem cells stimulate renewed repair, eventually restore vision.[48] The latest such development was in June 2005, when researchers at the Queen Victoria Hospital of Sussex, England were able to restore the sight of forty patients using the same technique. The group, led by Sheraz Daya, was able to successfully use adult stem cells obtained from the patient, a relative, or even a cadaver. Further rounds of trials are ongoing.[49]

Diabetes patients lose the function of insulin-producing beta cells within the pancreas.[50] In recent experiments, scientists have been able to coax embryonic stem cell to turn into beta cells in the lab. In theory if the beta cell is transplanted successfully, they will be able to replace malfunctioning ones in a diabetic patient.[51]

Clinical case reports in the treatment orthopaedic conditions have been reported. To date, the focus in the literature for musculoskeletal care appears to be on mesenchymal stem cells. Centeno et al. have published MRI evidence of increased cartilage and meniscus volume in individual human subjects.[52][unreliable medical source?][53] The results of trials that include a large number of subjects, are yet to be published. However, a published safety study conducted in a group of 227 patients over a 3-4-year period shows adequate safety and minimal complications associated with mesenchymal cell transplantation.[54]

Wakitani has also published a small case series of nine defects in five knees involving surgical transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells with coverage of the treated chondral defects.[55]

Stem cells can also be used to stimulate the growth of human tissues. In an adult, wounded tissue is most often replaced by scar tissue, which is characterized in the skin by disorganized collagen structure, loss of hair follicles and irregular vascular structure. In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells.[56] A possible method for tissue regeneration in adults is to place adult stem cell “seeds” inside a tissue bed “soil” in a wound bed and allow the stem cells to stimulate differentiation in the tissue bed cells. This method elicits a regenerative response more similar to fetal wound-healing than adult scar tissue formation.[56] Researchers are still investigating different aspects of the “soil” tissue that are conducive to regeneration.[56]

Culture of human embryonic stem cells in mitotically inactivated porcine ovarian fibroblasts (POF) causes differentiation into germ cells (precursor cells of oocytes and spermatozoa), as evidenced by gene expression analysis.[57]

Human embryonic stem cells have been stimulated to form Spermatozoon-like cells, yet still slightly damaged or malformed.[58] It could potentially treat azoospermia.

In 2012, oogonial stem cells were isolated from adult mouse and human ovaries and demonstrated to be capable of forming mature oocytes.[59] These cells have the potential to treat infertility.

Destruction of the immune system by the HIV is driven by the loss of CD4+ T cells in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues. Viral entry into CD4+ cells is mediated by the interaction with a cellular chemokine receptor, the most common of which are CCR5 and CXCR4. Because subsequent viral replication requires cellular gene expression processes, activated CD4+ cells are the primary targets of productive HIV infection.[60] Recently scientists have been investigating an alternative approach to treating HIV-1/AIDS, based on the creation of a disease-resistant immune system through transplantation of autologous, gene-modified (HIV-1-resistant) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC).[61]

Stem cells are thought to mediate repair via five primary mechanisms: 1) providing an anti-inflammatory effect, 2) homing to damaged tissues and recruiting other cells, such as endothelial progenitor cells, that are necessary for tissue growth, 3) supporting tissue remodeling over scar formation, 4) inhibiting apoptosis, and 5) differentiating into bone, cartilage, tendon, and ligament tissue.[62][63]

To further enrich blood supply to the damaged areas, and consequently promote tissue regeneration, platelet-rich plasma could be used in conjunction with stem cell transplantation.[64][65] The efficacy of some stem cell populations may also be affected by the method of delivery; for instance, to regenerate bone, stem cells are often introduced in a scaffold where they produce the minerals necessary for generation of functional bone.[64][65][66][67]

Stem cells have also been shown to have a low immunogenicity due to the relatively low number of MHC molecules found on their surface. In addition, they have been found to secrete chemokines that alter the immune response and promote tolerance of the new tissue. This allows for allogeneic treatments to be performed without a high rejection risk.[68]

The ability to grow up functional adult tissues indefinitely in culture through Directed differentiation creates new opportunities for drug research. Researchers are able to grow up differentiated cell lines and then test new drugs on each cell type to examine possible interactions in vitro before performing in vivo studies. This is critical in the development of drugs for use in veterinary research because of the possibilities of species specific interactions. The hope is that having these cell lines available for research use will reduce the need for research animals used because effects on human tissue in vitro will provide insight not normally known before the animal testing phase.[69]

Stem cells are being explored for use in conservation efforts. Spermatogonial stem cells have been harvested from a rat and placed into a mouse host and fully mature sperm were produced with the ability to produce viable offspring. Currently research is underway to find suitable hosts for the introduction of donor spermatogonial stem cells. If this becomes a viable option for conservationists, sperm can be produced from high genetic quality individuals who die before reaching sexual maturity, preserving a line that would otherwise be lost.[70]

Most stem cells intended for regenerative therapy are generally isolated either from the patient’s bone marrow or from adipose tissue.[65][67] Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into the cells that make up bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle, neural and other progenitor tissues, they have been the main type of stem cells studied in the treatment of diseases affecting these tissues.[71][72] The number of stem cells transplanted into damaged tissue may alter efficacy of treatment. Accordingly, stem cells derived from bone marrow aspirates, for instance, are cultured in specialized laboratories for expansion to millions of cells.[65][67] Although adipose-derived tissue also requires processing prior to use, the culturing methodology for adipose-derived stem cells is not as extensive as that for bone marrow-derived cells.[73][74] While it is thought that bone-marrow derived stem cells are preferred for bone, cartilage, ligament, and tendon repair, others believe that the less challenging collection techniques and the multi-cellular microenvironment already present in adipose-derived stem cell fractions make the latter the preferred source for autologous transplantation.[64]

New sources of mesenchymal stem cells are being researched, including stem cells present in the skin and dermis which are of interest because of the ease at which they can be harvested with minimal risk to the animal.[75] Hematopoetic stem cells have also been discovered to be travelling in the blood stream and possess equal differentiating ability as other mesenchymal stem cells, again with a very non-invasive harvesting technique.[76]

There is widespread controversy over the use of human embryonic stem cells. This controversy primarily targets the techniques used to derive new embryonic stem cell lines, which often requires the destruction of the blastocyst. Opposition to the use of human embryonic stem cells in research is often based on philosophical, moral, or religious objections.[77] There is other stem cell research that does not involve the destruction of a human embryo, and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells.

On 23 January 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration gave clearance to Geron Corporation for the initiation of the first clinical trial of an embryonic stem-cell-based therapy on humans. The trial aimed evaluate the drug GRNOPC1, embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, on patients with acute spinal cord injury. The trial was discontinued in November 2011 so that the company could focus on therapies in the “current environment of capital scarcity and uncertain economic conditions”.[78] In 2013 biotechnology and regenerative medicine company BioTime (AMEX:BTX) acquired Geron’s stem cell assets in a stock transaction, with the aim of restarting the clinical trial.[79]

Scientists have reported that MSCs when transfused immediately within few hours post thawing may show reduced function or show decreased efficacy in treating diseases as compared to those MSCs which are in log phase of cell growth(fresh), so cryopreserved MSCs should be brought back into log phase of cell growth in invitro culture before these are administered for clinical trials or experimental therapies, re-culturing of MSCs will help in recovering from the shock the cells get during freezing and thawing. Various clinical trials on MSCs have failed which used cryopreserved product immediately post thaw as compared to those clinical trials which used fresh MSCs.[80]

Research has been conducted on horses, dogs, and cats can benefit the development of stem cell treatments in veterinary medicine and can target a wide range of injuries and diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, tendon and ligament damage, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis and muscular dystrophy both in large animals, as well as humans.[81][82][83][84] While investigation of cell-based therapeutics generally reflects human medical needs, the high degree of frequency and severity of certain injuries in racehorses has put veterinary medicine at the forefront of this novel regenerative approach.[85] Companion animals can serve as clinically relevant models that closely mimic human disease.[86][87]

Veterinary applications of stem cell therapy as a means of tissue regeneration have been largely shaped by research that began with the use of adult-derived mesenchymal stem cells to treat animals with injuries or defects affecting bone, cartilage, ligaments and/or tendons.[88][71][89] There are two main categories of stem cells used for treatments: allogeneic stem cells derived from a genetically different donor within the same species[67][90] and autologous mesenchymal stem cells, derived from the patient prior to use in various treatments.[64] A third category, xenogenic stem cells, or stem cells derived from different species, are used primarily for research purposes, especially for human treatments.[69]

Bone has a unique and well documented natural healing process that normally is sufficient to repair fractures and other common injuries. Misaligned breaks due to severe trauma, as well as things like tumor resections of bone cancer, are prone to improper healing if left to the natural process alone. Scaffolds composed of natural and artificial components are seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and placed in the defect. Within four weeks of placing the scaffold, newly formed bone begins to integrate with the old bone and within 32 weeks, full union is achieved.[91] Further studies are necessary to fully characterize the use of cell-based therapeutics for treatment of bone fractures.

Stem cells have been used to treat degenerative bone diseases. The normally recommended treatment for dogs that have LeggCalvePerthes disease is to remove the head of the femur after the degeneration has progressed. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells have been injected directly in to the head of the femur, with success not only in bone regeneration, but also in pain reduction.[91]

Because of the general positive healing capabilities of stem cells, they have gained interest for the treatment of cutaneous wounds. This is important interest for those with reduced healing capabilities, like diabetics and those undergoing chemotherapy. In one trial, stem cells were isolated from the Wharton’s jelly of the umbilical cord. These cells were injected directly into the wounds. Within a week, full re-epithelialization of the wounds had occurred, compared to minor re-epithelialization in the control wounds. This showed the capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of epidermal tissues.[92]

Soft-palate defects in horses are caused by a failure of the embryo to fully close at the midline during embryogenesis. These are often not found until after they have become worse because of the difficulty in visualizing the entire soft palate. This lack of visualization is thought to also contribute to the low success rate in surgical intervention to repair the defect. As a result, the horse often has to be euthanized. Recently, the use of mesenchymal stem cells has been added to the conventional treatments. After the surgeon has sutured the palate closed, autologous mesenchymal cells are injected into the soft palate. The stem cells were found to be integrated into the healing tissue especially along the border with the old tissue. There was also a large reduction in the number of inflammatory cells present, which is thought to aid in the healing process.[93]

Autologous stem cell-based treatments for ligament injury, tendon injury, osteoarthritis, osteochondrosis, and sub-chondral bone cysts have been commercially available to practicing veterinarians to treat horses since 2003 in the United States and since 2006 in the United Kingdom. Autologous stem cell based treatments for tendon injury, ligament injury, and osteoarthritis in dogs have been available to veterinarians in the United States since 2005. Over 3000 privately owned horses and dogs have been treated with autologous adipose-derived stem cells. The efficacy of these treatments has been shown in double-blind clinical trials for dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip and elbow and horses with tendon damage.[94][95]

Race horses are especially prone to injuries of the tendon and ligaments. Conventional therapies are very unsuccessful in returning the horse to full functioning potential. Natural healing, guided by the conventional treatments, leads to the formation of fibrous scar tissue that reduces flexibility and full joint movement. Traditional treatments prevented a large number of horses from returning to full activity and also have a high incidence of re-injury due to the stiff nature of the scarred tendon. Introduction of both bone marrow and adipose derived stem cells, along with natural mechanical stimulus promoted the regeneration of tendon tissue. The natural movement promoted the alignment of the new fibers and tendocytes with the natural alignment found in uninjured tendons. Stem cell treatment not only allowed more horses to return to full duty and also greatly reduced the re-injury rate over a three-year period.[68]

The use of embryonic stem cells has also been applied to tendon repair. The embryonic stem cells were shown to have a better survival rate in the tendon as well as better migrating capabilities to reach all areas of damaged tendon. The overall repair quality was also higher, with better tendon architecture and collagen formed. There was also no tumor formation seen during the three-month experimental period. Long-term studies need to be carried out to examine the long-term efficacy and risks associated with the use of embryonic stem cells.[68] Similar results have been found in small animals.[68]

Osteoarthritis is the main cause of joint pain both in animals and humans. Horses and dogs are most frequently affected arthritis. Natural cartilage regeneration is very limited and no current drug therapies are curative, but rather look to reduce the symptoms associated with the degeneration. Different types of mesenchymal stem cells and other additives are still being researched to find the best type of cell and method for long-term treatment.[68]

Adipose-derived mesenchymal cells are currently the most often used because of the non-invasive harvesting. There has been a lot of success recently injecting mesenchymal stem cells directly into the joint. This is a recently developed, non-invasive technique developed for easier clinical use. Dogs receiving this treatment showed greater flexibility in their joints and less pain.[96]

Stem cells have successfully been used to ameliorate healing in the heart after myocardial infarction in dogs. Adipose and bone marrow derived stem cells were removed and induced to a cardiac cell fate before being injected into the heart. The heart was found to have improved contractility and a reduction in the damaged area four weeks after the stem cells were applied.[97]

A different trial is underway for a patch made of a porous substance onto which the stem cells are “seeded” in order to induce tissue regeneration in heart defects. Tissue was regenerated and the patch was well incorporated into the heart tissue. This is thought to be due, in part, to improved angiogenesis and reduction of inflammation. Although cardiomyocytes were produced from the mesenchymal stem cells, they did not appear to be contractile. Other treatments that induced a cardiac fate in the cells before transplanting had greater success at creating contractile heart tissue.[98]

Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[91] Spinal injuries occur in two ways after the trauma: the primary mechanical damage, and in secondary processes, like inflammation and scar formation, in the days following the trauma. These cells involved in the secondary damage response secrete factors that promote scar formation and inhibit cellular regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells that are induced to a neural cell fate are loaded onto a porous scaffold and are then implanted at the site of injury. The cells and scaffold secrete factors that counteract those secreted by scar forming cells and promote neural regeneration. Eight weeks later, dogs treated with stem cells showed immense improvement over those treated with conventional therapies. Dogs treated with stem cells were able to occasionally support their own weight, which has not been seen in dogs undergoing conventional therapies.[99][100][101]

Treatments are also in clinical trials to repair and regenerate peripheral nerves. Peripheral nerves are more likely to be damaged, but the effects of the damage are not as widespread as seen in injuries to the spinal cord. Treatments are currently in clinical trials to repair severed nerves, with early success. Stem cells induced to a neural fate injected in to a severed nerve. Within four weeks, regeneration of previously damaged stem cells and completely formed nerve bundles were observed.[75]

Stem cells are also in clinical phases for treatment in ophthalmology. Hematopoietic stem cells have been used to treat corneal ulcers of different origin of several horses. These ulcers were resistant to conventional treatments available, but quickly responded positively to the stem cell treatment. Stem cells were also able to restore sight in one eye of a horse with retinal detachment, allowing the horse to return to daily activities.[76]

Pre-clinical models of Sjgrens syndrome[102][103] have culminated in allogeneic MSCs implanted around the lacrimal glands in KSC dogs that were refractory to current therapy. Significantly improved scores in ocular discharge, conjunctival hyperaemia, corneal changes and Schirmer tear tests (STT) were seen.[104]

Stem-cell research and treatment was practiced in the People’s Republic of China. The Ministry of Health of the People’s Republic of China has permitted the use of stem-cell therapy for conditions beyond those approved of in Western countries. The Western World has scrutinized China for its failed attempts to meet international documentation standards of these trials and procedures.[105]

In 2005, South Korean scientists claimed to have generated stem cells that were tailored to match the recipient. Each of the 11 new stem cell lines was developed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. The resultant cells were thought to match the genetic material of the recipient, thus suggesting minimal to no cell rejection.[106]

As of 2013, Thailand still considers Hematopoietic stem cell transplants as experimental. Kampon Sriwatanakul began with a clinical trial in October 2013 with 20 patients. 10 are going to receive stem-cell therapy for Type-2 diabetes and the other 10 will receive stem-cell therapy for emphysema. Chotinantakul’s research is on Hematopoietic cells and their role for the hematopoietic system function in homeostasis and immune response.[107]

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Eczema Symptoms | Causes | Treatments | Types | Triggers

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Chances are, youre here to look for answers about eczema (eg-zuh-MUH)and find support.

You might have first noticed an itchy, red patch on your babys cheeks, chin, or chest that she or he scratched until it became even more irritated. Sound familiar? Or maybe you experienced something similar on your own neck, inner elbows, or behind your knees.

Eczema can appear anywhere on the body

Thats probably when you made an appointment with your doctor, who looked at it, talked to you about your symptoms, asked you questions about your family history and the types of products you use on your skin and in your home. Then your doctor told you it was eczema.

So what exactly is eczema? Who can get it and why? And what should you do, now that you or your child has been diagnosed?

Learning more about what kind of eczema you have and what may have triggered it, is the best starting point to treating and managing it, so that your eczema doesnt get in the way of your everyday life.

The good news is youve come to the right place. Were here to help guide you with all of the tools and support youll need every step of the way.

Eczema is the name for a group of conditions that cause the skin to become red, itchy and inflamed. There are eight types of eczema: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, hand eczema, lichen simplex chronicus, nummular eczema, seborrheic dermatitis and stasis dermatitis.

Eczema is very common. And in many cases, its also manageable. In fact, over 30 million Americans have some form of eczema.

Eczema flares often show up on the backs of the knees

Living with eczema can be an ongoing challenge. The word eczema is derived from a Greek word meaning to boil over, which is a good description for the red, inflamed, itchy patches that occur during flare-ups. Eczema can range from mild, moderate, to severe.

Its most common for babies and children to develop eczema on their face (especially the cheeks and chin), but it can appear anywhere on the body and symptoms may be different from one child to the next. More often than not, eczema goes away as a child grows older, though some children will continue to experience eczema into adulthood.

Adults can develop eczema, too, even if they never had it as a child.

Eczema is not contagious. You cant catch it from someone else. While the exact cause ofeczema is unknown, researchers do know that people who develop eczema do so because of a combination of genes and environmental triggers. When an irritant or an allergen switches on the immune system, skin cells dont behave as they should causing an eczema flare-up.

There is no cure for eczema but there are treatments. Depending on age and eczema severity, these treatments include over-the-counter (OTC) remedies, prescription topical medications, phototherapy, immunosuppressants, and biologic drugs. Many people with eczema also find success with specificnatural and alternative treatments.

For most types of eczema, managing flares comes down to these basics:

The most important thing to remember is that eczema and its symptoms are different for everyone. Your eczema may not look the same on you as it does on another adult, or on your child. It may even appear in different areas of the body at different times.

Eczema is usually itchy

Eczema is usually itchy. For many people, the itch is usually only mild, or moderate. But in some cases it can become much worse and you might develop extremely inflamed skin. Sometimes the itch gets so bad that people scratch it until it bleeds, which can make your eczema worse. This is called the itch-scratch cycle.

What to look for:

You might have all of these symptoms of eczema or only just a few. You might have some flare ups or your symptoms could go away entirely. But the only way to know if you have eczema for sure, is to visit your doctor so he or she can look at your skin and ask you about your symptoms.

Eczema is a general term for dermatitis, which simply means inflammation of the skin. All types of eczema cause itching and redness and some will blister, weep or peel.

Atopic dermatitis on the ankles and feet of an adult

There are eight types of eczema in all. Atopic dermatitis is a severe and chronic (long-lasting) form of eczema. It is caused by a combination of genes and an environmental trigger such as an irritant or allergen.

The term eczema is often used interchangeably with atopic dermatitis. However, each type of eczema, including atopic dermatitis, has somewhat different triggers, symptoms and treatments. Thats why its important to know which type or types (since a person can have more than one type at the same time) you have, so that you are best able to manage it.

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Dermatitis – Wikipedia

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DermatitisSynonymsEczemaA moderate case of dermatitis of the handsSpecialtyDermatologySymptomsItchiness, red skin, rash[1]ComplicationsSkin infection[2]Usual onsetChildhood[1][2]CausesAtopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis[1][2]Diagnostic methodBased on symptom[1]Similar conditionsScabies, psoriasis, dermatitis herpetiformis, lichen simplex chronicus[3]TreatmentMoisturizers, steroid creams, antihistamines[4][2]Frequency245 million (2015)[5]

Dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a group of diseases that results in inflammation of the skin.[1] These diseases are characterized by itchiness, red skin, and a rash.[1] In cases of short duration there may be small blisters while in long-term cases the skin may become thickened.[1] The area of skin involved can vary from small to the entire body.[1][2]

Dermatitis is a group of skin conditions that includes atopic dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, and stasis dermatitis.[1][2] The exact cause of dermatitis is often unclear.[2] Cases are believed to often involve a combination of irritation, allergy, and poor venous return.[1] The type of dermatitis is generally determined by the person’s history and the location of the rash.[1] For example, irritant dermatitis often occurs on the hands of people who frequently get them wet.[1] Allergic contact dermatitis, however, can occur following brief exposures to substances a person is sensitive to.[1]

Treatment of atopic dermatitis is typically with moisturizers and steroid creams.[4] The steroid creams should generally be of mid- to high strength and used for less than two weeks at a time as side effects can occur.[6]Antibiotics may be required if there are signs of skin infection.[2] Contact dermatitis is typically treated by avoiding the allergen or irritant.[7][8]Antihistamines may help with sleep and to decrease nighttime scratching.[2]

Dermatitis was estimated to affect 245 million people globally in 2015.[5] Atopic dermatitis is the most common type and generally starts in childhood.[1][2] In the United States it affects about 10-30% of people.[2] Contact dermatitis is twice as common in females than males.[9] Allergic contact dermatitis affects about 7% of people at some point in time.[10] Irritant contact dermatitis is common, especially among people who do certain jobs; exact rates are unclear.[11]

Dermatitis symptoms vary with all different forms of the condition. They range from skin rashes to bumpy rashes or including blisters. Although every type of dermatitis has different symptoms, there are certain signs that are common for all of them, including redness of the skin, swelling, itching and skin lesions with sometimes oozing and scarring. Also, the area of the skin on which the symptoms appear tends to be different with every type of dermatitis, whether on the neck, wrist, forearm, thigh or ankle. Although the location may vary, the primary symptom of this condition is itchy skin. More rarely, it may appear on the genital area, such as the vulva or scrotum.[12][13] Symptoms of this type of dermatitis may be very intense and may come and go. Irritant contact dermatitis is usually more painful than itchy.

Although the symptoms of atopic dermatitis vary from person to person, the most common symptoms are dry, itchy, red skin. Typical affected skin areas include the folds of the arms, the back of the knees, wrists, face and hands. Perioral dermatitis refers to a red bumpy rash around the mouth.[14]

Dermatitis herpetiformis symptoms include itching, stinging and a burning sensation. Papules and vesicles are commonly present.[15] The small red bumps experienced in this type of dermatitis are usually about 1cm in size, red in color and may be found symmetrically grouped or distributed on the upper or lower back, buttocks, elbows, knees, neck, shoulders, and scalp. Less frequently, the rash may appear inside the mouth or near the hairline.

The symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis, on the other hand, tend to appear gradually, from dry or greasy scaling of the scalp (dandruff) to scaling of facial areas, sometimes with itching, but without hair loss.[16] In newborns, the condition causes a thick and yellowish scalp rash, often accompanied by a diaper rash. In severe cases, symptoms may appear along the hairline, behind the ears, on the eyebrows, on the bridge of the nose, around the nose, on the chest, and on the upper back.[17]

A patch of dermatitis that has been scratched

The cause of dermatitis is unknown but is presumed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[2]

The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the cause of asthma, eczema, and other allergic diseases is an unusually clean environment. It is supported by epidemiologic studies for asthma.[18] The hypothesis states that exposure to bacteria and other immune system modulators is important during development, and missing out on this exposure increases risk for asthma and allergy.

While it has been suggested that eczema may sometimes be an allergic reaction to the excrement from house dust mites,[19] with up to 5% of people showing antibodies to the mites,[20] the overall role this plays awaits further corroboration.[21]

A number of genes have been associated with eczema, one of which is filaggrin.[4] Genome-wide studies found three new genetic variants associated with eczema: OVOL1, ACTL9 and IL4-KIF3A.[22]

Eczema occurs about three times more frequently in individuals with celiac disease and about two times more frequently in relatives of those with celiac disease, potentially indicating a genetic link between the conditions.[23][24]

Diagnosis of eczema is based mostly on the history and physical examination.[4] In uncertain cases, skin biopsy may be useful.[25] Those with eczema may be especially prone to misdiagnosis of food allergies.[26]

Patch tests are used in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis.[27][28]

The term “eczema” refers to a set of clinical characteristics. Classification of the underlying diseases has been haphazard with numerous different classification systems, and many synonyms being used to describe the same condition.

A type of dermatitis may be described by location (e.g., hand eczema), by specific appearance (eczema craquele or discoid), or by possible cause (varicose eczema). Further adding to the confusion, many sources use the term eczema interchangeably for the most common type: atopic dermatitis.

The European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) published a position paper in 2001, which simplifies the nomenclature of allergy-related diseases, including atopic and allergic contact eczemas.[29] Non-allergic eczemas are not affected by this proposal.

There are several types of dermatitis including atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, stasis dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema.[2] Many use the term dermatitis and eczema synonymously.[1]

Others use the term eczema to specifically mean atopic dermatitis.[30][31][32] Atopic dermatitis is also known as atopic eczema.[4] In some languages, dermatitis and eczema mean the same thing, while in other languages dermatitis implies an acute condition and eczema a chronic one.[33]

Diagnosis of types may be indicated by codes defined according to International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD).

Atopic dermatitis is an allergic disease believed to have a hereditary component and often runs in families whose members have asthma. Itchy rash is particularly noticeable on head and scalp, neck, inside of elbows, behind knees, and buttocks. It is very common in developed countries, and rising. Irritant contact dermatitis is sometimes misdiagnosed as atopic dermatitis.

Contact dermatitis is of two types: allergic (resulting from a delayed reaction to an allergen, such as poison ivy, nickel, or Balsam of Peru),[34] and irritant (resulting from direct reaction to a detergent, such as sodium lauryl sulfate, for example).

Some substances act both as allergen and irritant (wet cement, for example). Other substances cause a problem after sunlight exposure, bringing on phototoxic dermatitis. About three quarters of cases of contact eczema are of the irritant type, which is the most common occupational skin disease. Contact eczema is curable, provided the offending substance can be avoided and its traces removed from one’s environment. (ICD-10 L23; L24; L56.1; L56.0)

Seborrhoeic dermatitis or seborrheic dermatitis (“cradle cap” in infants) is a condition sometimes classified as a form of eczema that is closely related to dandruff. It causes dry or greasy peeling of the scalp, eyebrows, and face, and sometimes trunk. In newborns it causes a thick, yellow, crusty scalp rash called cradle cap, which seems related to lack of biotin and is often curable. (ICD-10 L21; L21.0)

Dyshidrosis (dyshidrotic eczema, pompholyx, vesicular palmoplantar dermatitis) only occurs on palms, soles, and sides of fingers and toes. Tiny opaque bumps called vesicles, thickening, and cracks are accompanied by itching, which gets worse at night. A common type of hand eczema, it worsens in warm weather. (ICD-10 L30.1)

Discoid eczema (nummular eczema, exudative eczema, microbial eczema) is characterized by round spots of oozing or dry rash, with clear boundaries, often on lower legs. It is usually worse in winter. Cause is unknown, and the condition tends to come and go. (ICD-10 L30.0)

Venous eczema (gravitational eczema, stasis dermatitis, varicose eczema) occurs in people with impaired circulation, varicose veins, and edema, and is particularly common in the ankle area of people over 50. There is redness, scaling, darkening of the skin, and itching. The disorder predisposes to leg ulcers. (ICD-10 I83.1)

Dermatitis herpetiformis (Duhring’s disease) causes intensely itchy and typically symmetrical rash on arms, thighs, knees, and back. It is directly related to celiac disease, can often be put into remission with appropriate diet, and tends to get worse at night. (ICD-10 L13.0)

Neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus, localized scratch dermatitis) is an itchy area of thickened, pigmented eczema patch that results from habitual rubbing and scratching. Usually there is only one spot. Often curable through behavior modification and anti-inflammatory medication. Prurigo nodularis is a related disorder showing multiple lumps. (ICD-10 L28.0; L28.1)

Autoeczematization (id reaction, autosensitization) is an eczematous reaction to an infection with parasites, fungi, bacteria, or viruses. It is completely curable with the clearance of the original infection that caused it. The appearance varies depending on the cause. It always occurs some distance away from the original infection. (ICD-10 L30.2)

There are eczemas overlaid by viral infections (eczema herpeticum or vaccinatum), and eczemas resulting from underlying disease (e.g., lymphoma). Eczemas originating from ingestion of medications, foods, and chemicals, have not yet been clearly systematized. Other rare eczematous disorders exist in addition to those listed here.

All eczemas are characterized by spongiosis which allows inflammatory mediators to accumulate. Different dendritic cells subtypes, such as Langerhans cells, inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells have a role to play.[35][36]

There is no good evidence that a mother’s diet during pregnancy, the formula used, or breastfeeding changes the risk.[37] There is tentative evidence that probiotics in infancy may reduce rates but it is insufficient to recommend its use.[38]

People with eczema should not get the smallpox vaccination due to risk of developing eczema vaccinatum, a potentially severe and sometimes fatal complication.[39]

There is no known cure for some types of dermatitis, with treatment aiming to control symptoms by reducing inflammation and relieving itching. Contact dermatitis is treated by avoiding what is causing it.

Bathing once or more a day is recommended, usually for five to ten minutes in warm water.[4][40]Soaps should be avoided as they tend to strip the skin of natural oils and lead to excessive dryness.[41]

There has not been adequate evaluation of changing the diet to reduce eczema.[42][43] There is some evidence that infants with an established egg allergy may have a reduction in symptoms if eggs are eliminated from their diets.[42] Benefits have not been shown for other elimination diets, though the studies are small and poorly executed.[42][43] Establishing that there is a food allergy before dietary change could avoid unnecessary lifestyle changes.[42]

People can wear clothing designed to manage the itching, scratching and peeling.[44]

Moisturizing agents (also known as emollients) are recommended at least once or twice a day.[4] Oilier formulations appear to be better and water-based formulations are not recommended.[4] It is unclear if moisturizers that contain ceramides are more or less effective than others.[45] Products that contain dyes, perfumes, or peanuts should not be used.[4]Occlusive dressings at night may be useful.[4]

There is little evidence for antihistamine; they are thus not generally recommended.[4] Sedative antihistamines, such as diphenhydramine, may be tried in those who are unable to sleep due to eczema.[4]

Oatmeal contains avenanthramide (anthranilic acid amides), which can have an anti-inflammatory effect.[46]

If symptoms are well controlled with moisturizers, steroids may only be required when flares occur.[4]Corticosteroids are effective in controlling and suppressing symptoms in most cases.[47] Once daily use is generally enough.[4] For mild-moderate eczema a weak steroid may be used (e.g., hydrocortisone), while in more severe cases a higher-potency steroid (e.g., clobetasol propionate) may be used. In severe cases, oral or injectable corticosteroids may be used. While these usually bring about rapid improvements, they have greater side effects.

Long term use of topical steroids may result in skin atrophy, stria, telangiectasia.[4] Their use on delicate skin (face or groin) is therefore typically with caution.[4] They are, however, generally well tolerated.[48]Red burning skin, where the skin turns red upon stopping steroid use, has been reported among adults who use topical steroids at least daily for more than a year.[49]

Topical immunosuppressants like pimecrolimus and tacrolimus may be better in the short term and appear equal to steroids after a year of use.[50] Their use is reasonable in those who do not respond to or are not tolerant of steroids.[51][52] Treatments are typically recommended for short or fixed periods of time rather than indefinitely.[4][53] Tacrolimus 0.1% has generally proved more effective than pimecrolimus, and equal in effect to mid-potency topical steroids.[37] There is no link to increased risk of cancer from topical use of 1% pimecrolimus cream.[53]

When eczema is severe and does not respond to other forms of treatment, systemic immunosuppressants are sometimes used. Immunosuppressants can cause significant side effects and some require regular blood tests. The most commonly used are ciclosporin, azathioprine, and methotrexate.

Light therapy using ultraviolet light has tentative support but the quality of the evidence is not very good.[54] A number of different types of light may be used including UVA and UVB;[55] in some forms of treatment, light sensitive chemicals such as psoralen are also used. Overexposure to ultraviolet light carries its own risks, particularly that of skin cancer.[56]

Limited evidence suggests that acupuncture may reduce itching in those affected by atopic dermatitis.[57] There is currently no scientific evidence for the claim that sulfur treatment relieves eczema.[58] It is unclear whether Chinese herbs help or harm.[59] Dietary supplements are commonly used by people with eczema.[60] Neither evening primrose oil nor borage seed oil taken orally have been shown to be effective.[61] Both are associated with gastrointestinal upset.[61]Probiotics do not appear to be effective.[62] There is insufficient evidence to support the use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin E, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), sea buckthorn oil, hempseed oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as dietary supplements.[60]

Chiropractic spinal manipulation lacks evidence to support its use for dermatitis.[63] There is little evidence supporting the use of psychological treatments.[64] While dilute bleach baths have been used for infected dermatitis there is little evidence for this practice.[65]

Most cases are well managed with topical treatments and ultraviolet light.[4] About 2% of cases are not.[4] In more than 60% of young children, the condition subsides by adolescence.[4]

Globally dermatitis affected approximately 230million people as of 2010 (3.5% of the population).[66] Dermatitis is most commonly seen in infancy, with female predominance of eczema presentations occurring during the reproductive period of 1549 years.[67] In the UK about 20% of children have the condition, while in the United States about 10% are affected.[4]

Although little data on the rates of eczema over time exists prior to the 1940s, the rate of eczema has been found to have increased substantially in the latter half of the 20th Century, with eczema in school-aged children being found to increase between the late 1940s and 2000.[68] In the developed world there has been rise in the rate of eczema over time. The incidence and lifetime prevalence of eczema in England has been seen to increase in recent times.[4][69]

Dermatitis affected about 10% of U.S. workers in 2010, representing over 15 million workers with dermatitis. Prevalence rates were higher among females than among males, and among those with some college education or a college degree compared to those with a high school diploma or less. Workers employed in healthcare and social assistance industries and life, physical, and social science occupations had the highest rates of reported dermatitis. About 6% of dermatitis cases among U.S. workers were attributed to work by a healthcare professional, indicating that the prevalence rate of work-related dermatitis among workers was at least 0.6%.[70]

The term “atopic dermatitis” was coined in 1933 by Wise and Sulzberger.[72]Sulfur as a topical treatment for eczema was fashionable in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.[58]

The word dermatitis is from the Greek derma “skin” and – -itis “inflammation” and eczema is from Greek: ekzema “eruption”.[73]

The terms “hypoallergenic” and “doctor tested” are not regulated,[74] and no research has been done showing that products labeled “hypoallergenic” are less problematic than any others.

A number of monoclonal antibodies are being studied as treatments including dupilumab.[75]

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Dermatitis – Wikipedia

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Atopic dermatitis (eczema) Symptoms – Mayo Clinic

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Overview

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is a condition that makes your skin red and itchy. It’s common in children but can occur at any age. Atopic dermatitis is long lasting (chronic) and tends to flare periodically. It may be accompanied by asthma or hay fever.

No cure has been found for atopic dermatitis. But treatments and self-care measures can relieve itching and prevent new outbreaks. For example, it helps to avoid harsh soaps, moisturize your skin regularly, and apply medicated creams or ointments.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) signs and symptoms vary widely from person to person and include:

Atopic dermatitis most often begins before age 5 and may persist into adolescence and adulthood. For some people, it flares periodically and then clears up for a time, even for several years.

See a doctor if you or your child:

Seek immediate medical attention for your child if the rash looks infected and he or she has a fever.

Healthy skin helps retain moisture and protects you from bacteria, irritants and allergens. Eczema is related to a gene variation that affects the skin’s ability to provide this protection. This allows your skin to be affected by environmental factors, irritants and allergens.

In some children, food allergies may play a role in causing eczema.

The primary risk factor for atopic dermatitis is having a personal or family history of eczema, allergies, hay fever or asthma.

Complications of atopic dermatitis (eczema) may include:

The following tips may help prevent bouts of dermatitis (flares) and minimize the drying effects of bathing:

Try to identify and avoid triggers that worsen the condition. Things that can worsen the skin reaction include sweat, stress, obesity, soaps, detergents, dust and pollen. Reduce your exposure to your triggers.

Infants and children may experience flares from eating certain foods, including eggs, milk, soy and wheat. Talk with your child’s doctor about identifying potential food allergies.

Take a bleach bath. The American Academy of Dermatology recommends considering a bleach bath to help prevent flares. A diluted-bleach bath decreases bacteria on the skin and related infections. Add 1/2 cup (118 milliliters) of household bleach, not concentrated bleach, to a 40-gallon (151-liter) bathtub filled with warm water. Measures are for a U.S.-standard-sized tub filled to the overflow drainage holes.

Soak from the neck down or just the affected areas of skin for about 10 minutes. Do not submerge the head. Take a bleach bath no more than twice a week.

July 25, 2017

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Cerebral Palsy Treatment – What Treatment Works Best?

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Treatment for cerebral palsy is multifaceted, often requiring multiple doctors and therapies. Early treatment usually has the greatest chance of improving a childs condition.Understanding Cerebral Palsy Treatment

The purpose of treatment for cerebral palsy is to promote the most normal, manageable and healthy life possible.

This is accomplished through treatments that allow people with cerebral palsy to maximize their independence in daily life.

Because every diagnosis is different, treatments vary greatly based on the individual.

The type of treatments used depends on the patients:

No two people receive the same treatment for cerebral palsy. Treatment encompasses short-term and management approaches to all the specific conditions that a child may face. This could involve medications, physical therapy, surgery and more.

The needs of a child with cerebral palsy arent solely based on correcting their physical disabilities. There are also social and emotional aspects of living a more fulfilling life. These aspects shouldnt be ignored when considering treatment and therapy.

Many children are content with their disabilities. As a parent, its important to consider their feelings. Some treatments can be stressful and uncomfortable, and may not be in the best interest of the child. Its important to discuss the physical and emotional impacts of all treatments with specialists and most importantly, the child.

Managing all aspects of a childs unique diagnosis is essential for successful comprehensive treatment.Well-rounded treatment approaches require a team of multidisciplinary specialists, usually with a pediatrician at the center of the group.

Pediatricians are generalists who manage the treatment plan, recognize specific issues and recommend specialists who can treat those issues. Each specialist uses ongoing treatment and assessments to ensure that all areas of the childs development are proceeding as normally as possible.

Types of specialists a child with cerebral palsy may require include:

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Physical therapy is typically the first, and most important, step toward treating cerebral palsy. It usually begins at a young age and is geared toward improving independent motor function. The types of physical therapies used for children depend on their specific movement problems and symptoms that coincide with cerebral palsy.

Physical therapy can improve:

Before physical therapy begins, the therapist takes an assessment of the childs motor capabilities. This helps determine the most appropriate measures for therapy. After evaluating the child, the therapist will prescribe strength training exercises, stretches and muscle relaxing techniques based on the childs needs.

Exercise equipment includes weights, resistance bands, balance balls and machines to improve muscle tone. Hot and cold packs are often used to help relax and heal muscles.

Scoliosis (spinal curvature) and shortened achilles tendons are some specific movement and posture issues that are treated with physical therapy. Physical therapy is an important prevention measure, as these issues can get worse over time. Proper treatment of the above conditions can also improve the chance of a child walking independently.

Many specialists recommend starting physical therapy as early as possible to prevent future complications like contracturesa shortening of muscles and tendons that can be painful and is common in spastic cerebral palsy. Strength training exercises are also helpful for children with dyskinetic cerebral palsy who have loose muscles and may experience atrophy.

Orthotics are devices used to train major muscle groups and are often a part of physical therapy. Splints, braces and casts may be used to assist children with high or low muscle tone. For example, children with scoliosis are often fitted with a plastic brace to correct curvature of the spine as they grow. These devices encourage mobility, balance and proper growth.

Occupational therapy helps children with cerebral palsy improve fine motor skills. In general, physical therapy is used to improve gross motor function, but it doesnt focus on fine motor function. People with cerebral palsy struggle with coordinating these skills for tasks such as grasping a spoon and bringing it to their mouth. But occupational therapists often work with physical and speech therapists to build a complete therapy plan.

Occupational therapists evaluate a childs needs by testing his or her fine motor skills, perception and oral motor skills. By observing how the child responds to touch and movements, the therapist can determine a treatment plan. The treatment plan typically involves positioning, reaching, grasping and releasing.

Occupational therapy can help with activities such as:

These skills are important for a child to develop the ability to be independent. Occupational therapy for children usually involves a form of play to keep them motivated.

Many children with cerebral palsy have sensory impairments that make movement difficult. Our senses help us recognize changes in temperature, feel pain and to be aware of the space around us. Senses, such as touch and balance, are important for motor skills like picking up objects and walking.

Other senses, such as proprioception, allow people to know the location of their own body parts; being able to touch your finger to the tip of your nose is an example of the proprioceptive sense. Sensory impairments make it hard to develop movement skills, and occupational therapists help children work through these impairments.

Birth injuries can also affect the parts of the brain that control speech and the muscles that allow us to speak. Many children with CP have issues with speech due to their birth injury. Speech therapy can teach children how to pronounce certain words and communicate more effectively.

Speech therapists can diagnose speech issues and help improve language skills. They can also help with other skills, such as breathing and eating, because these issues involve the muscles in the mouth and face.

Speech therapy also tackles problems that affect a childs ability to eat. Many children with CP struggle to maintain a healthy weight because its hard to chew or swallow food. Oral motor exercises can improve the ability to chew and swallow food effectively.

Speech therapists also work with other therapists. For example, a speech therapist and an occupational therapist can help children with drooling problems due to low muscle tone in the face and mouth.

People with cerebral palsy are often prescribed various medications to help manage their condition. Medications can help manage both movement issues and secondary conditions that develop due to cerebral palsy. The types of medications to treat these conditions range from antidepressants for seizures to nerve blocks for spasticity. To prevent unnecessary side effects, doctors weigh the pros and cons of these medications before prescribing them.

Common conditions treated with medication include:

There are multiple surgical treatments that can help correct movement problems in children with cerebral palsy. However, parents should keep in mind that surgery isnt right for every child with cerebral palsy.

Surgery is most commonly prescribed for those with spastic cerebral palsy because their increased muscle tone can be reduced to relieve restricted movement. For example, a child who walks on their toes due to high muscle tone in their legs can have those muscles or tendons lengthened, allowing for more normal walking.

Surgeries that can improve mobility in children with high muscle tone include:

Surgery is most effective when the child is old enough that doctors can determine where their movement issues are stemming from but young enough that there is still time to correct movement. This window is usually between 3-8 years of age.

Surgery may also be used to treat other conditions associated with cerebral palsy, such as hearing impairment and difficulties with feeding.

Many children with cerebral palsy develop co-occurring conditions as a result of their brain injury or movement problems. Each of these conditions must be treated as vigilantly as the childs movement issues to ensure they get the best quality of life possible.

Seizures are a disorder characterized by convulsions and sometimes a loss of consciousness. Approximately 41 percent of children with cerebral palsy have seizures. As with cerebral palsy, seizures come in varying levels of severity. Each case requires a specific approach to management. This requires surgery in some instances, but medication is the most common treatment.

Cerebral palsy itself does not affect intelligence. It is strictly a movement disorder. However, the brain injuries that cause CP can sometimes damage parts of the brain responsible for cognition. Some estimates suggest 25 to 60 percent of children with CP have a form of mental retardation. Estimates vary because some children with CP cant speak or control their bodies well enough to complete an IQ test. The severity of these intellectual disability also varies. Treatment usually involves a combination of medication and behavioral therapy.

This is a rare condition characterized by an unusual buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the skull. CSF has several functions, including nourishing the brain and removing waste from its surface. The buildup of CSF causes a disproportional increase in the size of the head that may be fatal. It is treated by implanting valves that allow excess CSF to drain off. The incidence of hydrocephalus is approximately less than two thousandths of a percent for every birth in the country, according to some estimates.

The gastrointestinal system is complex and includes the stomach, intestines, esophagus and liver. The gastrointestinal system relies on a variety of muscles to work effectively. Children with problems chewing and swallowing often require therapy to learn how to eat effectively. Acid reflux is also a problem because the lower muscle in the esophagus isnt strong enough to keep food in the stomach. Untreated acid reflux can be serious for children with CP. It can lead to complications such as pneumonia or esophagitis. Acid reflux can usually be controlled with special eating techniques and medication, but may require surgery in severe circumstances.

Urinary tract infections are very common in children with cerebral palsy. Children with CP often struggle with bladder control and constipation because these movements require the coordination of multiple muscle groups. Many children soil themselves frequently because of a lack of normal muscle control. Parents can help prevent urinary infections by giving frequent baths and diaper changes.

Brain injuries before, during or after birth may also cause vision or hearing loss. Damage to the motor cortex can cause problems with sight. Treatment may involve removing cataracts, correcting crossed eyes or simply prescribing glasses. Up to 15 percent of children with cerebral palsy have a hearing impairment. Hearing issues are treated with surgery or hearing aids.

Children with athetoid cerebral palsy may experience dental issues. The inability to control muscle movement in the mouth can cause problems such as overbites, underbites, tooth decay and enamel defects.

To learn more about your treatmentoptions, try downloading our free Cerebral Palsy Guide, which includes over 60 pages of in-depth information for children and parents of a child with CP.

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Cerebral Palsy Treatment – What Treatment Works Best?

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Treatment for Cerebral Palsy

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Treating Cerebral Palsy is almost as complex as the condition is, and theres no cookie-cutter approach because each individual is affected differently. Although the brain injury that causes Cerebral Palsy cannot be healed, the resulting physical impairment can be managed with a wide range of treatments and therapies. Although there is no universal protocol developed for all cases, a persons form of Cerebral Palsy, extent of impairment, and severity level help to determine care.

While therapy and adaptive equipment are the primary treatment protocol for Cerebral Palsy, an individual may also require drug therapy and surgical interventions. Some families, with caution and physician guidance, turn to complementary and alternative medicine for additional assistance.

Although each medical specialist may have specific care goals related to their specialty and the individuals unique condition, the overriding treatment goal for those with Cerebral Palsy is to:

Conventional treatment methods involve systems, practices and products that have been researched, tested and approved by the medical community as acceptable forms of treatment. Complementary medicine differs from conventional as it has not yet been fully tested or approved, but may be under consideration. Complementary medicine, when used under doctor supervision, can be used as a complement to an existing treatment plan. Alternative medicine is a treatment method that is used to replace conventional medicine.

There are risks involved in using complementary or alternative forms of medicine so anyone considering a CAM should consult with their doctor before engaging in these forms of treatment.

The childs physical impairment is considered his or her primary condition. The primary physical impairment may involve challenges with muscle tone, reflexes, posture, balance, fine motor functioning, gross motor functioning and oral motor functioning. These conditions can, in turn, create secondary conditions that also require treatment. Management of the Cerebral Palsy is further complicated by co-mitigating factors not caused by the same brain injury that caused Cerebral Palsy, but that still exists in the child as a separate condition requiring simultaneous treatment.

For example, the childs Cerebral Palsy may cause a problem with facial muscle control and coordination. This would be considered a primary condition. Due to the lack in facial muscle control, the child may find it difficult to chew, swallow, or communicate, which are secondary conditions. In addition, a child may have an unrelated condition, such as asthma, which would be considered a co-mitigating factor.

Cerebral Palsy varies in type, location and severity of impairment. The childs primary care physician, usually the pediatrician, will assess the childs overall health to develop a comprehensive treatment plan to meet the unique needs of the child while taking into consideration the family dynamics. A comprehensive treatment plan is required to coordinate care of all conditions primary, secondary, associative and co-mitigating conditions. Due to the variety of conditions that need to be addressed, a treatment plan usually involves a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists working closely with the childs pediatrician to establish and accomplish care goals. Parents or legal guardians work closely with the multi-disciplinary team.

A comprehensive treatment plan takes the childs abilities into consideration, as well as his or her socio-economic situation and home care dynamics. Health insurance coverage is important and can be obtained through government sources, employer benefit programs, or private providers. Many avenues of government assistance, community support, and professional services are designed to assist in fulfillment of these needs, while the public education system is mandated by the government to accommodate a childs special needs throughout his or her school-age years and transition to adulthood.

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Treatment for Cerebral Palsy

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