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Stem cell – Wikipedia

Posted: October 18, 2018 at 4:52 pm

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. Continue reading

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Stem-cell therapy – Wikipedia

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This article is about the medical therapy. For the cell type, see Stem cell Continue reading

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Journal of Stem Cell Research and Therapy- Open Access …

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PUBMED NLM ID: 101586297 | Index Copernicus Value: 84.95 The Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy is an open access journal that showcases seminal research in the field of stem cell therapy. As stem-cells are flag-bearers of translational research, the field has an interdisciplinary feel by including oncology, clinical research, medicine and healthcare under the aegis of stem-cell therapy Continue reading

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Hypertension – Wikipedia

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HypertensionSynonymsArterial hypertension, high blood pressureAutomated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown a systolic blood pressure 158mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)SpecialtyCardiologySymptomsNone[1]ComplicationsCoronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, dementia[2][3][4]CausesUsually lifestyle and genetic factors[5][6]Risk factorsExcess salt, excess body weight, smoking, alcohol[1][5]Diagnostic methodResting blood pressure130/80 or 140/90mmHg[5][7]TreatmentLifestyle changes, medications[8]Frequency1637% globally[5]Deaths9.4 million / 18% (2010)[9] Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.[10] High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms.[1] Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.[2][3][4][11] High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) high blood pressure or secondary high blood pressure.[5] About 9095% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors.[5][6] Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.[1][5] The remaining 510% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.[5] Blood pressure is expressed by two measurements, the systolic and diastolic pressures, which are the maximum and minimum pressures, respectively.[1] For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 6080 mmHg diastolic.[7][12] For most adults, high blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg.[5][7] Different numbers apply to children.[13] Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement.[5][10] Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications.[8] Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, and a healthy diet.[5] If lifestyle changes are not sufficient then blood pressure medications are used.[8] Up to three medications can control blood pressure in 90% of people.[5] The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as > 160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy.[14] The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80mmHg and 160/100mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit[7][15][16] and others finding unclear benefit.[17][18][19] High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally.[5] In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).[9] Hypertension is rarely accompanied by symptoms, and its identification is usually through screening, or when seeking healthcare for an unrelated problem. Some with high blood pressure report headaches (particularly at the back of the head and in the morning), as well as lightheadedness, vertigo, tinnitus (buzzing or hissing in the ears), altered vision or fainting episodes.[20] These symptoms, however, might be related to associated anxiety rather than the high blood pressure itself.[21] On physical examination, hypertension may be associated with the presence of changes in the optic fundus seen by ophthalmoscopy.[22] The severity of the changes typical of hypertensive retinopathy is graded from IIV; grades I and II may be difficult to differentiate.[22] The severity of the retinopathy correlates roughly with the duration or the severity of the hypertension.[20] Hypertension with certain specific additional signs and symptoms may suggest secondary hypertension, i.e. hypertension due to an identifiable cause Continue reading

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Heart Surgery | Private cardiac specialists in London …

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Overview London Bridge Hospital has built a reputation as a cardiac centre of excellence in the UK. Its reputation has been established by attracting world-renowned consultants in cardiac medicine from top teaching hospitals, investment in state-of-the-art equipment and an exceptional in-house support team. We have proven and enthusiastic clinical teams who encourage holistic thinking about treatments Continue reading

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Myocardial infarction – Wikipedia

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Myocardial infarctionSynonymsAcute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart attackDiagram showing the blood supply to the heart by the two major blood vessels, the left and right coronary arteries (labelled LCA and RCA). A myocardial infarction (2) has occurred with blockage of a branch of the left coronary artery (1).SpecialtyCardiologySymptomsChest pain, shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, cold sweat, feeling tired[1]ComplicationsHeart failure, irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest[2][3]CausesUsually coronary artery disease[2]Risk factorsHigh blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol[4][5]Diagnostic methodElectrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, coronary angiography[6]TreatmentPercutaneous coronary intervention, thrombolysis[7]MedicationAspirin, nitroglycerin, heparin[7][8]PrognosisSTEMI 10% risk of death (developed world)[7]Frequency15.9 million (2015)[9] Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.[1] The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw.[1] Often it occurs in the center or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.[1] The discomfort may occasionally feel like heartburn.[1] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, nausea, feeling faint, a cold sweat, or feeling tired.[1] About 30% of people have atypical symptoms.[7] Women more often have atypical symptoms than men.[10] Among those over 75 years old, about 5% have had an MI with little or no history of symptoms.[11] An MI may cause heart failure, an irregular heartbeat, cardiogenic shock, or cardiac arrest.[2][3] Most MIs occur due to coronary artery disease.[2] Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol intake, among others.[4][5] The complete blockage of a coronary artery caused by a rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is usually the underlying mechanism of an MI.[2] MIs are less commonly caused by coronary artery spasms, which may be due to cocaine, significant emotional stress, and extreme cold, among others.[12][13] A number of tests are useful to help with diagnosis, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), blood tests, and coronary angiography.[6] An ECG, which is a recording of the heart’s electrical activity, may confirm an ST elevation MI (STEMI) if ST elevation is present.[7][14] Commonly used blood tests include troponin and less often creatine kinase MB.[6] Treatment of an MI is time-critical.[15] Aspirin is an appropriate immediate treatment for a suspected MI.[8] Nitroglycerin or opioids may be used to help with chest pain; however, they do not improve overall outcomes.[7][8] Supplemental oxygen is recommended in those with low oxygen levels or shortness of breath.[8] In a STEMI, treatments attempt to restore blood flow to the heart, and include percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), where the arteries are pushed open and may be stented, or thrombolysis, where the blockage is removed using medications.[7] People who have a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are often managed with the blood thinner heparin, with the additional use of PCI in those at high risk.[8] In people with blockages of multiple coronary arteries and diabetes, coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) may be recommended rather than angioplasty.[16] After an MI, lifestyle modifications, along with long term treatment with aspirin, beta blockers, and statins, are typically recommended.[7] Worldwide, about 15.9 million myocardial infarctions occurred in 2015.[9] More than 3 million people had an ST elevation MI and more than 4 million had an NSTEMI.[17] STEMIs occur about twice as often in men as women.[18] About one million people have an MI each year in the United States.[2] In the developed world the risk of death in those who have had an STEMI is about 10%.[7] Rates of MI for a given age have decreased globally between 1990 and 2010.[19] In 2011, AMI was one of the top five most expensive conditions during inpatient hospitalizations in the US, with a cost of about $11.5 billion for 612,000 hospital stays.[20] Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium) Continue reading

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Conditions We Treat: Myocardial Infarction | Johns Hopkins …

Posted: at 4:51 pm

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when a portion of the heart is deprived of oxygen due to blockage of a coronary artery. Coronary arteries supply the heart muscle (myocardium) with oxygenated blood. Without oxygen, muscle cells served by the blocked artery begin to die (infarct). Continue reading

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ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

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ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is the term cardiologists use to describe a classic heart attack. Continue reading

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Myocardial Infarction (MI) NCLEX Questions

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This is a quiz that contains NCLEX questions for myocardial infarction (MI). A myocardial infarction happens when there is not enough blood flow to the heart muscle which causes cells to die. Continue reading

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ECG localization of myocardial infarction / ischemia and …

Posted: at 4:51 pm

It is often importantto be able to determine the localization of myocardial infarction and ischemia, as well as being able to determine which coronary artery that is iccluded, and where the occlusion may be located. As discussed below, this may facilitate diagnosis of ischemia and infarction, and it may also guide management. Continue reading

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